15 MAY 2013
by Per Arnold Andersen

Per Arnold Andersen is head of the Daylight, Energy and Indoor Climate Department at the VELUX Group. Per Arnold Andersen studied architecture at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen and graduated in 1977. He has been working as practicing architect and planner for more than twenty years with projects in all scales, including integrated town renewal projects with specific focus on housing, resource consciousness and ecology in Denmark and Germany.

Since 1999 he has been working in the VELUX Group, where he has established the knowledge and competence centre for Daylight, Energy and Indoor Climate. Per Arnold Andersen has for several years taken active part in European standardization within light and lighting. In 2005 he initiated VELUX Daylight Symposia – an internationally recognized forum for exchange of daylight knowledge, viewpoints and visions. Per Arnold Andersen has been taking part in the organization of International VELUX Award for Students of Architecture since 2004.

by Lene Dammand Lund

Lene Dammand Lund is rector at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation. She is a trained architect from Aarhus School of Architecture and has been CEO of landscape architects SLA A/S since 2006. Lund after work on Danish and international design studios was the editor of The Architect, had his own business and alongside his MBA from Copenhagen Business School. Lene Dammand Lund has held several positions of trust associated with the branch of architecture, including being board member for Freja Properties A/S, Signal Architects and chairman of the advisory board at Aarhus School of Architecture.

Architecture for a sustainable future
by Christiano Lepratti

The Mission of our UIA Work Programme is to investigate strategies for the „climate change mitigation“. Our goal is the Internationalization and awareness for the topics of climate-optimized design. To reconcile technology and building culture to think of efficiency (performances) and design as a whole. One of the most important focus of our field activities, according with the international research agenda, is energy efficiency.The design, planning and implementation of renewal/retrofitting projects of current built stock, represents a major challenge in order to improve the general energetic performance of built environments. In this framework historic buildings play a special role: on one side they form the core of many European cities (representing about 10% of the total building Stock), on the other side, the improvement of their energy efficiency is very difficult, due to restrictions pertaining to architectural characters and sensitive building structure.The energetic recovery plays a central role for the achievement of UE targets concerning the reduction of emissions and on energy savings. Although new constructions can, by now, count on consolidated technologies, the existing buildings suffer, differently, from a deep lack in strategies and approaches. In fact, too often the typical standard solutions, applied to new constructions, are too invasive or simply not applicable to these buildings, especially the historic ones. Current main technological solutions, if not integrated appropriately within existing buildings structure, do not comply enough with ancient building stock.In this context is important to stress the role of passive strategies, like  improving daylight lighting and natural ventilation. The use of low technologies, supported by high technologies and simulations tools, is the strategy we have to encourage, for a more responsible architecture and to improve the balance between building performances and building culture.

Christiano Lepratti is visiting professor at La Sapienza University. He is co-founder together with Vera Martinez of -malearc in Berlin. 2011 together with an international team -malearc won the competion for the “New Ecocity Daoviet” (20.000 inhabitants) in Halong, Vietnam. As UIA Director for the Work Programme “Architecture for a sustainable Future” he has been a strong advocate of sustainable development in Europe. 2009 in Copenhagen during the UN’s climate change conferences he has contributed to launch the UIA strategy “sustainable by design”.  As UIA delegate at the UN’s conference “Sustainable Development” in Rio de Janeiro he organized a conference about “Urban Regeneration”. Currently he is planning the exhibition (Durban Street) for the UIA Congress 2014 about urban regeneration in the Durban’s downtown.

The influence of sunlight on indoor health
by Richard Hobday

The idea that sunlit spaces are healthier than those in shadow and darkness is ancient. Scientific confirmation of this belief came in 1877, when Arthur Downes and Thomas Blunt reported to the Royal Society that sunlight inhibits the growth of bacteria in test tubes. Their classical investigations showed sunlight has a bactericidal effect; even behind glass. This has been described as one of the most influential discoveries in all of photobiology.

In 1903, the Danish scientist Professor Niels Finsen recieved the Nobel Prize for Medicine. This award came in recognition of the pioneering work he carried out at his Light Institute in Copenhagen. Finsen found a way of curing tuberculosis with sunlight. Almost single-handedly, he put light therapy back in the mainstream of western medicine following centuries of neglect. This, in turn, had marked effect on building design. Architects began creating sunlit spaces to promote health and hygiene. Today, far less importance is given to sunlight in buildings. Yet the benefits can be significant. If, as it seems, we are entering the post-antibiotic era it may be time to reacquaint ourselves with them.

In this presentation Richard Hobday will discuss how building for the sun can prevent disease and promote health indoors. He will show that sunlight may prevent communicable diseases spreading in buildings both directly and indirectly. First, solar radiation is the primary germicide in the environment. It kills pathogens that cause respiratory and other infections. Second, there is evidence that direct sunlight can increase resistance to infection in those who receive it – again – even behind glass. Research suggests improved immunity may be gained from the intensity of sunlight, or the sun’s infra-red rays, or both.

Dr. Richard Hobday is an authority on sunlight therapy and solar design for health. He is an independent consultant, and his work and research history bridges gaps between several disciplines. These include mechanical engineering, sustainable design, town planning, infection control, and public health. He is the author of The Healing Sun: Sunlight and Health in the 21st Century (Findhorn Press, 1999), a critically acclaimed book on the health benefits of solar radiation. His most recent book The Light Revolution; Health Architecture and the Sun (Findhorn Press, 2006), explains how designing for sunlight can improve public health.

Supporting city regions to lead by example
by Peter Head

Peter Head CBE FREng FRSA –Executive Chairman The Ecological Sequestration Trust and Chairman of The Institute for Sustainability. Peter is a civil and structural engineer who has become a recognised world leader in major bridges, advanced composite technology, consulting engineering management and in sustainable development in cities. In Arup  Peter led their planning and integrated urbanism team for 7 years. In 2008 he was nominated by Time Magazine in 2008 as one of 30 global eco-heroes & named by the Guardian as one of 50 people that could ‘save the planet’.

with Richard Hobday and Christiano Lepratti

Human habitat, public health and public policy
by Philip Allsopp

What can cities do – and are doing – to combat climate change?. Unfortunately, we often see a lot of detrimental things still happen in cities. Quite often solutions are literally just shooting from the hip, and the evidence base that many builders, developers, architects and engineers have is pretty poor. In many cases the value proposition is only based on assertions that their proposals will yield certain results. But the knowledge base for that and the data underpinning it is much, much thinner than anyone would feel comfortable with. For example, cities need to take on explicit action, and in places like Phoenix, where I come from, it is like a semi-finished canvas waiting to be filled in and completed. It’s a place that is full of opportunities – and also a place where the problems of decades of planning, designing and building for the convenience of the automobile and cheap energy are in full view.  … The city grew by building air-conditioned replicas of buildings and housing that existed somewhere else and were capable of providing for human comfort in completely different climates …..Today, the costs of cooling dwellings and other buildings in the Phoenix area are far greater than ever before …. With fewer resources available to pay utility bills, we need the best advice and the best coaching and the best technology in order to shrink the rapidly rising utility costs. But much of what we need to do, in our region, will have to evolve over decades – because there are no quick fixes – particularly in areas where we have extreme climates.

Philip Allsopp RIBA, FRSA, is a writer, speaker and activist directly involved for many years in shaping the policies and physical environments that encourage active living, economic diversity and greater community resilience. Phil Allsopp has a professional and academic background in the fields of architecture, public health and systems dynamics. He is the co-founder of Transpolis Global, a multi-disciplinary organisation combining urban design, architecture, public policy and community advocacy, with clients in the USA, EU and Australia. Phil serves on Phoenix Mayor Greg Stanton’s Sustainability Advisory Committee, the Board of the Sonoran Institute, and is the immediate past President and Chief Executive Officer of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, based at Taliesin West in Scottsdale, Arizona. Allsopp’s main fields of interest are human habitat, public health and public policy, particularly the connections between our built environment health and well-being.

Planning for people and city life in Copenhagen
by Tina Saaby

Living in the city and taking part in its life is an active choice for most people. We go down to the café, cycle to work, take a dip in the harbour or go to a concert on one of the city squares. We can do these things because Copenhagen has a unique big-city environment with green areas, a clean harbour and a world famous cycling culture. In the city’s space we meet other people: both those we know already and those we just see down on the street, people with other values and other lifestyles. So, a varied urban life is an important part of a socially sustainable life.   Living in the city starts, both with the city and with the people living in the city. It has to do with the physical context and with the behavior of the human beings in it. Good architecture and peoples happiness. The lecture will focus on how we will become one of the most liveable cities; a sustainable city with urban space inviting people to a unique and varied urban life. How we are working on becoming a metropolis for people and try to put people in the middle when we design the context.

Tina Saaby has been Copenhagen City Architect since 2010 and is also external examiner at Roskilde University Department of Environment, Social and Spatial Change; Copenhagen University KU LIFE; visiting professor at University of Sheffield; former Vice President of the Architectural Association; and former owner of Witraz Architects.

The Importance of Daylight in Building Renovation
by Signe Kongebro

Daylight should always be considered when converting buildings. How can an approach of this kind be systematised? What new potential and synergies are created when we make daylight our starting point for the redevelopment of a building or district? And what are the benefits of using daylight as the main tool to convert individual apartments, whole apartment blocks and entire residential areas?

Based on empirical investigations Henning Larsen Architects, in collaboration with engineers from the Technical University of Denmark, has develop modern simulation tools that clarifies what benefits of daylight renovation are for everyday life on the streets and in public spaces, as well as for residents’ comfort levels and the year-end energy bills. Their research suggests a greater integration of knowledge in the design phase, as findings show how 40-50% of the energy consumption of a building is determined by the design.

Buildings can create better conditions for each other in relation to sun, shadow and wind. Hence, optimising the city structure is a necessary prerequisite for reducing the energy consumption of the individual buildings. Using daylight as a dominating design parameter possess an untapped potential to ensure this energy reduction, as the form, density and organisation of the city have a substantial influence on the amount of sunlight and daylight, which has a great impact on the energy level in individual buildings.

Signe Kongebro is an Architect, Associate, and Manager of the Sustainability Department at Henning Larsen Architects. Her work with sustainable buildings is based on a scientific and interdisciplinary approach. Signe is the driving force behind a number of innovate projects and contributes to the ongoing societal debate on sustainability through her engagement in networks such as the Energy Renovation Network of the Danish Minister for Climate, Energy and Building and the green think tank of Denmark, Concito. In 2012 she was selected as Role Model of the Year by the readers of Estate Magazine for her efforts in promoting a more sustainable building sector.  Further, she is President of the Sustainability Council of The Danish Association of Architectural Firms.

The daylighting potential of existing office buildings
by Lisa Heschong

Daylight in existing buildings represents a vast untapped resource for energy and demand savings. The presence of windows, shading devices and control of lighting circuits in daylit areas in the state of California represents a huge investment by developers and building owners which, in most cases, is not currently exploited for its demand and energy savings potential. This presentation focuses on the existing office buildings and their potential for reaping additional energy and demand savings from daylighting.

The California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) and its detailed dataset of existing buildings provided a basis for the analysis. Additional data collection provided additional insight into office building types, window layouts, and exterior obstructions. It was shown that a full 75% of office square footage in California is low rise, i.e. under four stories, which stands in contradiction to many people‘s image of office space as existing primarily in downtown high rise buildings. It also found that a majority of California office buildings (60% of statewide building area) has some form of shading from trees, and exterior obstructions block a view of the sky up to an average of 24 degrees above the horizon. These findings suggest that energy modeling and program estimates should account for the reality of exterior obstructions such as trees and other buildings, since these existing obstructions have a significant impact on both daylight availability and solar heat gain.

The energy savings per square foot of building, or per daylit space, vary considerably, based on many factors, such as climate, location, the layout of the building and its façade characteristics. But simple improvements, such as lowering partition heights, repainting walls, replacing old ceiling tiles, and re-carpeting with higher reflectance products can increase average energy and demand savings.

Lisa Heschong is a Managing Principal of TRC Energy Services, which recently acquired the Heschong Mahone Group, Inc., the consulting firm she founded twenty years ago. A licensed architect for 30 years, Ms Heschong has devided her professional career between energy research, writing and building design.  She is an internationally recognized expert on daylighting, lighting energy use, and human factors in building design. Ms. Heschong has published scholarly papers, written for trade magazines, and conducted numerous lectures and workshops on issues of daylighting, high performance design, energy efficiency, and human comfort. Recently, she served on the Board of Directors of IESNA, and was Chair of the IESNA Subcommittee on Daylight Metrics, which just published new recommendations for annual daylight performance metrics as IES LM-83.

with Lisa Heschong, Tina Saaby, Signe Kongebro and Philip Allsopp

Urban form, energy and daylight
by Koen Steemers

With an increasing interest in higher density living, one aim of which is to achieve a more sustainable mixed use and compact urban development, access to daylight and sun is becoming more constrained. This in turn will have implications for energy use and occupant wellbeing. Research at the University of Cambridge’s Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies has been exploring these challenges and developing new analysis techniques that study the effects of urban form and energy use. Work to date has demonstrated a number of trends, including: increasing urban density by a factor of two (e.g. from a plot ratio of 2 to 4) increases primary energy demand in office buildings by 25%. However, research has also shown that by manipulating urban form, and in particular by introducing a greater degree of diversity in spacing between buildings and in relative building heights, daylight and sunlight availability can be increased. This urban diversity thus counteracts increasing density. Moreover, the range of microclimatic conditions that this diversity can create has been shown to provide a greater degree of adaptability and comfort with the outdoor urban conditions. Our current research studies the effects of urban form on domestic energy demand and solar potential. The findings suggest that in the current building stock the energy demand per square meter is independent of density, despite the intuition that more urban house compact forms will reduce heat loss. However, the energy use per dwelling or the energy use per occupant does reduce as densities increase, primarily because of the reduced floor area per dwelling and occupant in urban centres. Opportunities for solar gains reduce with urban density but there are key parameters of urban form and building design that can counteract this effect. Professor Steemers will demonstrate recent findings related to the analysis of urban form using digital and graphical techniques, combined with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and energy simulation.

Koen Steemers is professor of Sustainable Design in the Department of Architecture, Cambridge University. Previously he was director of the Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies (2003-08), and today also Director of Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd. As an architect and environmental design specialist, Koen Steemer’s current work deals with the architectural and urban implications of environmental issues.

Daylighting design for the existent
by Claude Demers

Existing buildings offer immensurable sources of embodied knowledge for architects. When acting upon the existent, architects are faced with real dynamic multisensory environments that should inform a more systemic quantitative and qualitative design process for daylighting. However, architectural culture and design are far more familiar with the qualitative expression of daylighting atmospheres and ambiences than to quantitative numerical data. Rethinking daylighting in terms of dynamic ambiences becomes the necessary challenge for designing with existing buildings. The dynamic of spatio-temporal experiences or promenade architecturale, widely discussed by phenomenology is hereby becoming an essential starting point only possible in existing spaces. The systemic analysis of ambiences using in situ dynamic surveys should therefore aim to decompose the complexity of daylighting, and ideally include the thermal and acoustical dimensions which all act together in global environmental satisfaction. Design for the Existent proposes three-step methodologies that have been developed through teaching, research and practice:
1. Assessment: Longitudinal in situ surveys gather qualitative and quantitative evidences of the existent’s multisensory environmental diversity as perceived by the static and moving inhabitant.2. Representation: Qualitative and quantitative data are translated into a meaningful format for the architect. Interactive plans and sections illustrate the dynamic spatio-temporal properties of daylighting in parallel with the thermal and acoustical environments.3. Speculation: Evidence-based knowledge allows the architect to tackle the design challenges and opportunities with more confidence. Cut and paste alterations of the existing representation with inserts from precedents or new analogical/numerical simulations, becomes a powerful design tool to better understand the dynamic complexity of proposed daylighting strategies.Claude Demers is a professor at Laval University, School of Architecture, where she is involved in applied and theoretical research projects through practice and teaching. She is a co-director and co-founder of the Groupe de Recherche en AmbiancesPhysiques (GRAP) with her colleague André Potvin. She has completed her Ph.D. in Architecture at the University of Cambridge, Martin Centre, and has specialized in lighting and sustainable architecture.

Visual, health, and environmental benefits of windows in buildings during daylight hours
by Martine Knoop

The International Commission on Illumination – also known as the CIE from its French title, the Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage – has started a new joint technical committee (JTC) ‘Visual, Health, and Environmental Benefits of Windows in Buildings during Daylight Hours’. The technical committee will include members from Division 3, Interior Environment and Lighting Design and Division 6, Photobiology and Photochemistry.

The committee will review the scientific literature in all relevant fields and produce a concise document that identifies the values of windows in buildings. Examples of such values could the provision of light for visibility, ventilation, means of egress; aesthetic benefits, access to a view, and light for physiological functioning, including circadian rhythm regulation. If possible, based on this literature, the committee will propose preliminary criteria for daylighting metrics to support these functions.

Surprisingly there is no document that has the status of a consensus-based international document that pulls together these various aspects of windows. The absence of such a document is causing some friction between lighting professionals and building scientists focused on building energy efficiency. In some parts of the world there is pressure to reduce window sizes (or to permit buildings not to have windows) in order to maximize the insulation value of walls. The Global Lighting Association, in its correspondence with CIE, has specifically asked CIE to provide it with such a guidance document. Moreover, researchers are beginning to propose their own preliminary criteria for daily light exposure. By the time such a committee gets to that point in its work, it will be time for an international review to assess these proposals and to set directions for new work. Even if no definitive statement is possible at that time, the JTC could produce a document similar to the recently published document proposing that there does exist a minimum necessary UV exposure (CIE 201:2011: Recommendations on Minimum Levels of Solar UV Exposure).

Martine Knoop is Lecturer at the Chair of Lighting Technology, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany. After studying architecture and building physics at Delft University of Technology, she finalized her PhD in 2000, dealing with glare from windows and acceptance studies in daylit rooms. Before TU Berlin, she was a senior application specialist of Philips Lighting, the Netherlands and part-time visiting professor at Eindhoven University of Technology. She is also the Division Secretary of CIE Division 3 – Interior Environment and Lighting Design.

with Martine Knoop, Claude Demers and Koen Steemers

Biomimicry in architectural design
by Michael Pawlyn

Most people now accept the case for sustainability and many wonder how the debate will move forward over the next few decades. Some commentators have asserted that biomimicry will be one of the main design tools that facilitate the shift from the industrial age to the ecological age of mankind. This rapidly emerging discipline draws on a sourcebook of solutions that have benefitted from a 3.8 billion year research and development period.

In this talk Michael Pawlyn will describe how biomimicry can be used to design buildings that not only achieve radical increases in resource efficiency but are also better for people – creating internal environments that enhance wellbeing and productivity. He will further illustrate biomimicry’s potential with descriptions of how it can facilitate the shift from a linear / wasteful / polluting way of using resources to a completely closed loop model – transforming existing buildings and cities will be as much about creating sustainable infrastructure as it is about sustainable architecture. Michael will also show some future scenarios that involve the creation of a solar economy in place of our current fossil fuel economy and the benefits of modelling our systems, buildings and cities on ecosystems.

Michael Pawlyn established Exploration in 2007 to focus exclusively on biomimicry. In 2008 Exploration was short-listed for the Young Architect of the Year Award and the internationally renowned Buckminster Fuller Challenge. Prior to setting up the company Michael Pawlyn worked with Grimshaw for ten years and was centralto the team that radically re-invented horticultural architecture for the Eden Project. He was responsible for leading the design of the Warm Temperate and Humid Tropics Biomes and the subsequent phases that included proposals for a third Biome for plants from dry tropical regions. He initiated and developed the Grimshaw environmental management system resulting, in December 2000, in the company becoming the first firm of European architects to achieve certification to ISO14001.He has lectured widely on the subject of sustainable design in the UK and abroad and in 2011 his book ‘Biomimicry in Architecture’ was published by the Royal Institute of British Architects.

Knowledge to practice – Epigenetics and the built environment
by Deborah Burnett

Many aspects of human biochemistry, physiology, behavior, and the process of sleep are organized around a 24 hour rhythm driven by an endogenous circadian clock. The operation of the master pacemaker and all secondary clocks are determined by changing DNA expression in response to environmental signals. Epigenetics epi-(Greek: επί- above )-genetics is the study of changes in genetic expression without changing the basic DNA sequence. Ambient light and temperature are the primary exogenous environmental zeitgebers responsible for circadian genetic response. Recent study has demonstrated electric light to be as effective for circadian response as that of naturally occurring photoperiods of light and dark. Given that 90% of human daily waking hours are spent within the artificially illuminated indoor environment, the evidence based architectural practice of EPIGENTIC DESIGN has been established to investigate daylighting and electric lighting practice on circadian genetic expression. This session will seek to address emerging epigenetic circadian research investigating the impact of environmental light on genetic expression involving sleep, fetal development, and Vitamin D synthesis.

Deborah Burnett, ASID, CMG, LGC, AASM is an award winning internationally recognized registered interior designer, licensed general contractor, keynote presenter and member of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Over a successful 30 year professional career, her practice has emerged as a leader in the embodiment of intent-driven, evidence-based architectural and interior design devoted to a working knowledge of how the body and brain are directly affected by the built environment. An early pioneer in the emerging practice of EPIGENETIC DESIGN, she has been instrumental in disseminating important scientific and medical research examining the impact of built environmental ambient lighting on the process of sleep, cognition and obesity. In addition to consulting on projects throughout the world, Ms. Burnett’s work includes clinical and academic research, public education and outreach, academic lectures, and presentations in the popular media.

with Deborah Burnett and Michael Pawlyn

5th Velux Daylight Symposium

16 MAY 2013
A museum of daylight – the new Acropolis Museum in Athens
by Florence Lam

As environmental concerns increase, it is more important than ever to utilise natural light to its fullest in all public spaces, including galleries and museums. When working on the New Acropolis Museum, Arup’s lighting team used daylight as the theme to emphasise and enhance the ancient collection as well as the architecture.  Daylight is used as a tool to replicate, as far as possible, the outdoor conditions under which many of the architectural sculptures were originally seen.  The use of architectural lighting is kept minimal, playing a complimentary role, and switched on at dusks only.  This makes the night time transformation even more dramatic for the visitors and was key in achieving the sustainability agenda of the designers.

Florence Lam is a Director with Arup, an international design and business consulting firm. She leads Arup’s global lighting design practice, and has been responsible on a wide range of creative and well-executed projects all over the world.  She believes in Total Architecture solution, in combining lighting creativity with the highly–skilled expertise of Arup’s engineers and environmental specialists, which has a tremendous advantage over the traditional approach to lighting design.  Her particular interests in visual perception and natural lighting have played key roles in many of her innovative and sustainable design solution on projects, such as Tate Modern in London, Nasher Sculpture Center in Dallas, the New Acropolis Museum in Athens, Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto and the new California Academy of Sciences Building in San Francisco with Renzo Piano, achieving the platinum rating of the US Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program.

The Lorax project – Giving architects a voice in daylight standards
by Christoph Reinhart

This project is concerned with how to evaluate the daylight availability in spaces. The problem statement is of course ancient but advances in computer simulations in concert with the ubiquitous use of three dimensional CAD models in contemporary design, have recently triggered a wave of research activities and proposals of how to holistically quantify and evaluate daylight in spaces. In 2005 the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) set up a daylighting metrics committee that was tasked to propose a new daylighting metric that can be used to evaluate the daylight in spaces for standards and rating systems including LEED. The committee recently published a daylight autonomy based lighting measurement standard, as the ‘new’ official daylight sufficiency metric for offices, classroom, libraries and the like. While on the one hand content with this decision, the author wondered, “Is this theoretical construct really something that mimics what designers would think of a space?” To address the question the author originally initiated a daylighting study in Le Corbusier’s Carpenter Center at Harvard University that asked 60 students at the beginning of a course on daylighting were asked to draw the boundary of the daylit area in the space. The mean daylit areas based on student assessments were remarkably similar to the new IESNA based simulation metric1. In 2012 the author invited daylighting instructors from other architecture schools worldwide to conduct a similar classroom exercise and share the resulting student assessments and CAD models with the author. To date fifteen schools participated in the study providing a comprehensive set of simulation-based evaluations of spaces versus student/user evaluations.

Christoph Reinhart is a building scientist and architectural educator working in the field of sustainable building design and environmental modeling. He joined the Department of Architecture of MIT in January 2012 as an Associate Professor. He is leading a research group called the the Sustainable Design Lab. Previously, Christoph Reinhart served on the faculty of the Graduate School of Design (GSD) at Harvard University and he has worked as a staff scientist at the National Research Council of Canada and the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems in Germany.His research expertise is in daylighting, passive climatization techniques, urban modeling and the influence of occupant behavior on building energy use. The design tools developed by his group are used by thousands of architecture and engineering firms in over 90 countries. He currently serves on the editorial board of several journals, and has authored over 100 scientific articles and three book chapters.

Daylight & sustainability – what are the future political & regulatory drivers?
by David Strong

An increasing body of evidence confirms the importance of daylight on human health, wellbeing, happiness and productivity in the workplace. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive worldwide review of the research evidence associated with the importance of the social and economic contributions of glazed areas to sustainability in the built environment.

Of particular importance are the findings from the healthcare and education sectors, together with emerging evidence regarding the importance of daylight in retail buildings and in providing a link to the natural world in homes. In healthcare, research findings demonstrate that access to daylight provides; a reduction in the average length of hospital stay, quicker post-operative recovery, reduced requirements for pain relief, quicker recovery from depressive illness and disinfectant qualities. In educational buildings access to daylight has been shown to result in a dramatic (and demonstrable) improvement in student academic achievement, behaviour, calmness and focus. In the workplace numerous studies have identified a preference to work near windows and under conditions which fully utilise natural rather than artificial light.

Given the importance of daylight, the paper presents a review of the legal and regulatory requirements associated with daylight. The origins and benefits of ‘Right to Light’ legislation are considered, together with a review of national and international standards, ordinances and regulations regarding the provision of daylight in buildings. The paper also presents recommendations regarding future international collaborative research and action to ensure that daylight access is safeguarded more effectively in future building design.

David Strong is an internationally recognised expert in sustainable building design and refurbishment. He has a wealth of knowledge associated with the low/zero carbon buildings and is a specialist in whole system thinking, building physics and integrative design. He currently chairs the Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes and a Ministerial Advisory Group on the government’s Green Deal. He also chaired the Zero Carbon Hub’s Working Group on Carbon Compliance Tools and he sits on the UK PassivHaus Trust Advisory Board. David is Chairman of the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Implementation Advisory Group (DIAG) and acts as a special advisor to the European Commission on energy demand issues.

with David Strong, Florence Lam and Christoph Reinhart

5th Velux Daylight Symposium

New materials and green technologies for the cities
by Kasper Guldager

Successful innovation often spring from mixing expertise and experience from different disciplines. Therefore, all projects in GXN are completed through interdisciplinary collaboration with selected specialists. It is not our mission to conduct core research, but bringing together and applying existing knowledge from manufacturers and academic institutions often outside the building industry. We work with network-based innovation through a number of applied research projects including daylight simulations, architectural psychology, and production of wild plant species. This includes for example working with programmers, psychologists, biologists, artists, chemists and gardeners.

How do spiders and mushrooms inspire tomorrow’s buildings? In architecture the word design is mainly associated with the design of buildings and objects. In the world of materials, design is something internal. The development of production methods on the micro scale has led to far greater control of how we design and construct new materials. This kind of design is mainly invisible to the human eye. In fact materials of the future are already a reality today, and they can help us to answer many of the ecological design challenges we are facing. Through the use of new material the aim is to develop a building culture that positively affects the world in which we live – both architecturally and environmentally.

New materials are very much a matter of new scientific knowledge. The volume of research in the within biology, physics and chemistry doubles every ten months – a rate of development that remarkably parallels that of the development of computing power. Our built environment needs to reflect on these shifts in technology by implementing and innovating through multidisciplinary expertise. Ultimately, the periodic table of elements defines our building blocks.

Kasper Guldager Jørgensen is Partner in 3XN and Director of GXN; the innovation unit at 3XN. GXN was established in 2007 to exploit the possibilities that arise applying the latest knowledge and technology into design and architecture. The mission of GXN is to develop a building culture that positively affects the world we live in – both architecturally and environmentally. Kasper is passionately engaged in research and development of sustainability design, digital processes, and new materials. He sees a great potential in these areas and wants to take part in its exploitation. In the space of a few years he has become a spokesperson for the shape of future architecture, focusing on new business areas and integration of new materials and green technologies.

Daylight redirecting film – field studies
by Raghu Padiyath

Many types of daylight redirecting systems have been studied over the past few decades. These systems are designed to redirect the sunlight incident on transom or clerestory windows upwards onto the ceiling, thus redistributing daylight deeper into the space. In the present study, micro-structured daylight redirecting films were designed, characterized, produced and evaluated a variety of ways. The films are adhered to the inside surface of a window and are primarily aimed as a retrofit solution for improving daylight distribution and thus, allowing a reduction in electric lighting energy consumption. A parametric modeling study was used to determine the optimal shape of the structures for both optical performance and ease of manufacturing. Initial evaluations revealed excessive glare under certain conditions that was significantly reduced with the addition of a diffusing panel. The system’s optics were characterized with physical measurements of the BSDF and then validated with raytracing. The BSDF files were used as input to annual simulation runs using Dynamic Radiance to predict the resulting workplane luminance and Daylight Autonomy, and eQuest to predict potential energy savings for four climates in the continental United States. The films were also installed and evaluated in seven buildings across the US, and compared with untreated spaces in the same buildings. Occupant surveys and illumination monitoring were conducted in both treated and untreated spaces over a six month period. Results from these field studies will be discussed, including comparison of monitored versus simulated energy impacts, occupant response, and building system integration issues.

Raghu Padiyath is currently a senior product development specialist at 3M Company in St. Paul, MN. He holds a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering and has worked on such varied subjects as vacuum thin film processes, solution coating and drying, photolithography, Laser Induced Thermal Imaging, and organic light emitting diode technologies. He has been working with daylight redirecting systems for the past three years.

Variable transmission glazing: a viable retrofit technology?
by John Mardaljevic

The natural variably of daylight causes both delight and consternation. The changing patterns of daylight provide building occupants with a sense of ‘connection’ to the natural world. But by the same token of daylight’s dynamic character, the contact with the outside is fragile and often lost for much of the time because the undue ingress of light and heat results in shades being deployed – denying occupants of both daylight and views out. Shades are usually left closed long after the visual/thermal discomfort condition has passed, and so the daylighting potential of buildings is often not realised in practice.

Most shading systems act as a ‘shutter’ that is either open or closed, with users rarely making the effort to optimise the shading for both daylight provision and solar/glare control. A glazing with a transmissivity that varies continuously between clear and dark extremes would offer a much greater degree of control over the luminous environment.

This presentation will give a review of the different types of variable transmission glazing (VTG), and identify those which are poised to become mainstream products in the near future. Three distinct types of formulation have variable transmission properties: electrochromic, thermochromic and photochromic. Formulations based on electrochromic (EC) principles, where the glazing transmission is modulated by a small applied voltage, are considered the most promising at present because the sensor input can be any environmental parameter that can be measured, and the dynamic range that has been achieved is sufficiently high that secondary shading may not be needed.

The majority of the buildings of the year 2050 already exist, and retrofit of facades will be one of the key areas where changes to the building fabric are made. VTG could lead to a radical reconsideration of facade design, leading perhaps to the elimination of the need for (external) brise-soleil and (internal) blinds. And also giving an improved environment for occupants where sunlight is – optimally – controlled whilst view to the outside is preserved.

EC glazing has been deployed for evaluation in test facilities and also real buildings. The presentation will describe monitoring results from the first building in the UK to have EC glazing (a retrofit example), and it will conclude with a discussion on the market transforming potential of this now mature technology.

John Mardaljevic (PhD, FSLL) is Professor of Building Daylight Modelling at the School of Civil & Building Engineering, Loughborough University. Mardaljevic pioneered what is now known as Climate-Based Daylight Modelling (CBDM). Founded on rigorous validation work, CBDM is now the basis for research and, increasingly, industry practice worldwide. Mardaljevic’s practice-based research and consultancy includes major projects such as the New York Times Building and The Hermitage (St. Petersburg). He currently serves as the ‘UK Principal Expert on Daylight’ for the European Committee for Standardisation CEN / TC 169 WG11, and on a number of International Commission on Illumination (CIE) technical committees. In 2012 Mardaljevic was presented the annual UK lighting award by the Society for Light and Lighting (SLL). He is CIE-UK Representative for Division 3 (Interior Environment).

Daylight and greenery in the basement of a hospital building
by Hester Hellinga

The paper and presentation will be about the importance of daylight and greenery for patients and employees in healthcare environments. A research will be described which has been performed before, during, and after the renovation of a hospital building. The results show that people have a natural need for daylight and greenery, and that the presence of both adds to the visual quality of healthcare environments.

The research was conducted in the basement of a Dutch hospital building. This department has a coffee room and waiting area which have windows to a small outside space below ground level. During a renovation a footbridge was placed on top of the outside space, giving access to the new entrance of the hospital. Later a vertical garden was made in the outside space, in order to improve the appearance of the coffee room and waiting area.

By a questionnaire research the effect of the changes on the perception of the spaces and employees’ and patients’ perceived well-being has been investigated. Furthermore, light levels were measured during the different phases of the renovation.

The results show that daylight levels in the coffee room have been reduced with about 80% due to the footbridge, which is much disliked by the employees. The vertical garden has improved the appearance of both rooms. It provides the patients with some distraction and also makes the coffeeroom looks brighter than before, although light levels have not increased. Employees, however, also note that they would like to have more access to daylight in their working area.

Hester Hellinga studied architecture and building technology and graduated in 2006 from TU Delft. In 2013 she will defend her PhD thesis in the research group Climate Design of the faculty of Architecture. Since 2011, she has been working at Cauberg-Huygen Consulting Engineers in the area of building physics with a focus on daylight and user perception of indoor spaces.

with Kasper Guldager, Raghu Padiyath, John Mardaljevic and Hester Hellinga

5th Velux Daylight Symposium

Existing buildings and light consultancy
James Benya

No one knows for sure, but it is a safe guess that for every new building completed each year, there are 10,000 existing buildings.  Most are inefficient and many are simple buildings where practical daylighting can be added. In addition to tremendous energy savings, better illumination and wellness benefits for occupants generally occur.

This presentation will discuss the investigation, calculations, and design of skylights for existing big box buildings, including retail stores, gymnasiums and industrial buildings.  It will address the many various design parameters including latitude, climate, building siting and other factors.  Cost effectiveness including energy savings and potential for occupant and worker benefits will be included.  Several completed projects will be shown and their verified results presented.

James Benya, is Principal of the Benya Burnett Consultancy based in Davis, CA. He is a registered Professional Engineer, a Fellow of the Illuminating Engineering Society, and a Fellow of the International Association of Lighting Designers. He has 40 years of experience as an architectural lighting and daylighting designer and has worked on projects throughout North American and other parts of the world. He is the only three-time winner of the Edison Award for Environmental Design including daylighted projects.

Daylight in urban environments – considering people, politics, economy and scale
Panel debate lead by James Benya

Panel debate with Michael Pawlyn, Philip Allsopp, Christoph Reinhart and Florence Lam with James Benya as moderator.