DAYLIGHT AS A QUALITATIVE ASPECT AND DRIVING ELEMENT IN DEVELOPING ARCHITECTURE
by Stefan Behnisch
Depending on the geographical location of a future building site, the aspect of daylight plays a different role. The sun is either a friend or a foe, an asset or a problem, we have to protect against or have to enhance. In some geographical locations, we are as well in need off, but have at the same time to protect our buildings against direct sunlight. Its important for our wellbeing, but its source is also creating major challenges.
I will describe different strategies to protect against, and at the same time enhance its influence for the inhabitants of our buildings. How do these various criteria inform our design process and challenge and promote the formal development of our buildings. The placing of openings, designing of movable and still sun protection and invention of of daylight enhancing systems create a new contemporary architectural apparatus. Where in the past, i.e. the Renaissance, structural restraints were overcome by creating a formal architectural apparatus, we are facing today new challenges, motivating us to develop new formal languages.
Stefan Behnisch, studied philosophy, economics and architecture. Prior to establishing his own practice in 1989, he worked as an architect at Behnisch & Partner, the practice run by his father, Prof. Günter Behnisch. Since 2005 Stefan Behnisch’s firm is called Behnisch Architekten, opening offices in Los Angeles (1999-2011), Boston and Munich. Stefan Behnisch is a frequent lecturer and guest professor. In 2007 he received a Global Award for Sustainable Architecture, in 2013 Stefan Behnisch the “Energy Performance + Architecture Award”. He is a member of the BDA, the RIBA, the NCARB and the AIA.
SUPERARCHITECTURE: DAYLIGHT FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND HEALTH
by Terri Peters
One of the most significant challenges in architectural research and practice is how to better define and evaluate sustainability to make better environments for people. Often, this has meant ‘green architecture’ focused on resource use and comparisons to benchmark buildings, but increasingly a more holistic approach and new metrics for evaluating sustainable buildings including ‘social sustainability’ are gaining influence.
Daylight offers unique potentials as a design driver for the human dimensions of sustainability because it plays a central role in architectural experience, human health and wellbeing, and energy savings. Research has shown that buildings have the power to enhance people’s health and emotional wellbeing, encourage physical activity, and help people be happier and more productive. This talk focuses on daylight as a critical design parameter for human experience and wellbeing, drawing on the speaker’s recent journal issue on architecture’s role as the link between environmentally sustainable design and health promoting environments. This talk introduces the concept of superarchitecture, which are buildings that go beyond reducing energy use or mitigating the impacts of climate change to offer positive co-benefits of improved health and wellness for occupants, better environmental performance, and enriched architectural design such as innovative spatial experiences, enhanced community benefits, and additional amenities.
The talk presents evidence and recently built examples of superarchitecture that use daylight not only to make the environment better, but to make people better for being in them. Examples include emotionally supportive spaces designed by Canadian office MGA where daylight is used to promote a sense of home and comfort, Australian studio Lyons’s exuberant designs for multi-sensory architecture where daylight and green spaces create welcoming and playful spaces, and the focus on daylit, passive design strategies incorporating local fabrication methods by MASS Design Group.
Terri Peters is a Post-Doctoral Researcher at University of Toronto in Canada. Her research concentrates on sustainable architecture, in particular the human experience of green buildings including cultural and architectural qualities, health and wellbeing, and new design tools for measuring and evaluating building performance. She is the editor of Architectural Design journal “Design For Health: Sustainable Approaches to Therapeutic Architecture” (March 2017) and author of Computing the Environment: Digital Design Tools for the Simulation and Visualisation of Sustainable Architecture (In Press, John Wiley and Sons). She holds a professional degree in architecture and is a registered architect in the UK where she worked professionally before undertaking her PhD. She earned a PhD from Aarhus Architecture School in Denmark in 2015.
DAYLIGHT RESEARCH FROM KNOWLEDGE TO PRACTICE: THE TORTOISE AND THE GUERRILLA
by John Mardaljevic
Building scientists are exhorted to demonstrate that their research has ‘real-world impact’, for example, influencing in some substantive/novel way the design, evaluation, construction and/or operation of buildings. Impact can take many forms, and the routes to achieving impact are many and varied. What experience has shown is that there is no prescribed or straightforward route to ensure that a ‘good idea’ from research finds its way to being applied in the real world. In what might be called the ‘idealist rational’ model, a need is identified by, say, a government body which then promptly funds research to address this gap in knowledge. The research is evaluated by a duly appointed body, deemed to be sound, and recommendations are made to, say, modify incrementally (or occasionally, radically) some aspect of building practice, e.g. design, evaluation, construction, etc. However, whatever the claims made in a funding proposal, and irrespective of how well the research was carried out, very few projects directly influence real-world practice. The ‘idealist rational’ model also has a ‘romantic’ variant. In this, the outcome is much the same, however the researcher first has to ‘struggle’ to have his/her voice heard. Although in possession of a ‘great new idea’ (which will surely transform the world for the better) the scientist is ignored and/or encounters one ‘brick wall’ of intransigence after another. Until, when all seems hopeless, someone in authority gives the idea a fair hearing and is immediately convinced of its value. The ‘idealist romantic’ approach, of course, only works in the movies.
The routes to real-world impact are, in comparison to either of the idealist approaches, poorly delineated. In addition to having an uncertain path, it might not be obvious who the ‘gatekeepers’ are — who are the ones who have to be convinced before any substantive changes can be made?
For this presentation, a diverse set of case study examples are used to show how daylighting research became applied to real-world projects with lasting and significant impact. Often, the outcome was not fully (or even partially) anticipated at the onset. With hindsight however, it is evident that long-term engagement with key players was a major factor in most instances. Occasionally, less conventional ‘modes of engagement’ were employed. For application scenarios without any precedent, especially when the stakes are high, the case for first use requires something more compelling than a hoped-for or well-intentioned positive outcome. If the proposal is for application of a simulation-based technique, then rigorous validation of the underlying method is an essential prerequisite. The proposer needs to convince those unfamiliar with the technique that, irrespective of the novelty of the application scenario, the underlying prediction technique is sound. For the projects described here, the key players, with whom it was essential to establish and maintain longterm relationships, include both professional and public bodies such as: the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers; the National Trust; the British Standards Institute; and, international bodies such as the European Committee for Standardisation. Also important was regular collaboration with practitioners on ‘live projects’. This serves to remind the researcher of the important distinction between the possible and the practicable.
John Mardaljevic (PhD, FSLL) is Professor of Building Daylight Modelling at the School of Civil & Building Engineering, Loughborough University. Mardaljevic pioneered what is now known as Climate-Based Daylight Modelling (CBDM). Founded on rigorous validation work, CBDM is now the basis for research and, increasingly, industry practice worldwide. Mardaljevic’s practice-based research and consultancy includes major projects such as the New York Times Building and The Hermitage (St. Petersburg). He currently serves as the ‘UK Principal Expert on Daylight’ for the European Committee for Standardisation CEN / TC 169 WG11, and on a number of International Commission on Illumination (CIE) technical committees.
USING IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY IN LIGHTING RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
by Kynthia Chamilothori
In this Virtual Reality demonstration, participants are invited to explore 360° scenes and discuss the potential and limitations of this tool in lighting research and practice.
The virtual reality scenes are generated through a method that uses high dynamic range (HDR) images to create a seamless immersive environment that can be experienced from a static viewpoint in a Virtual Reality headset. The method is easy to use, as the scenes can be produced using different types of input, including both renderings and photographs. The scenes that can be explored in the demonstration show various architectural interiors to highlight the potential of the method for different applications. The demonstrated method is being developed in the Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Performance-Integrated Design (LIPID) in EPFL.
After the VR demonstration, the participants are invited to discuss with the research team the principles of the employed method and the results of a validation study, and answer to a short questionnaire on their impressions.
Kynthia Chamilothori joined the Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Performance-Integrated Design (LIPID) in EPFL as a PhD candidate in February 2015. She graduated with honors from the Technical University of Crete with a Master’s degree (Dipl-Ing) in Architectural Engineering in 2014, receiving the Limmat Stiftung Excellence Award. Her research diploma project “Memorigami”, a prototype temperature-responsive transformable shading system, received an innovation development grant from the 2013 University Student Entrepreneurship Project (UNISTEP). After her architectural degree, she joined LIPID for the development of a real scale prototype of an arabic-inspired adaptive shading system which responds passively to direct sunlight. Extending her work on building envelopes,
Kynthia’s doctoral research focuses on how façade patterns and the variability of daylight shape the way we perceive architectural space. Using both real environments and virtual reality in experimental studies, she aims to broaden our understanding of the complex effects of patterns and daylight on subjective experience. Siobhan Rockcastle is a researcher exploring topics at the intersection of architectural design, human perception, environmental dynamics, and building performance. She is in the final stages of completing her PhD at at the LIPID Lab of EPFL.
CREATIVE ACTIVITY-BASED LEARNING AND OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS REQUIRE A NEW WAY OF DESIGNING DAYLIGHT
by Jakob Strømann-Andersen
Daylight is a fundamental premise when we approach architecture. It is undoubtedly one of our most important resources – not to mention the most costless. However, the legacy of excessive daylight, to promote task performance, is still apparent today. While the new European daylight standard prEN 17037:2016 lays a well-reasoned foundation for standardized daylight levels in learning and office environments, it nevertheless needs further advancements in the very thing it is endorsing – productivity.
What we see today, is a radical change in learning and office environments. New school reforms are encouraging more vigorous learning scenarios, and offices are progressively offering new influential work settings. Conventional classrooms are pushed closer toward the core of the building, avoiding distractions from glare, overheating and direct sunlight from the facade, and conformist office desks along the façade periphery, are replaced with larger set-down spaces, multiple communal and gathering areas, establishing more frequent social encounters – also encouraging activity and movement. We are acknowledging this shift in paradigms. Creative environments are significantly different from 10 years ago. Dynamic spaces are a game changer – and dynamic daylight supports it.
We have already begun to link daylight variability with increased productivity. Studies show that students are showing better academic results in contrast filled spaces, while also profiting from increased social interactions, in areas which offer higher levels of daylight. In other words, more daylight, necessarily isn’t the best daylight for productivity – however is indeed the most preferable for activity and movement.
Activity thrives in high daylight quantities, and academic productivity thrives in the quality6. This has pushed us to design accordingly. However, there are glitches in doing so. The new EU standard proposes no easy solution for optimal productivity. The new EU standard constitutes, that every inch of the indoor space maintains an even daylight distribution of 0.7% – nonetheless a well-intentioned ambition to create common ground for daylight designs. However, while the daylight factor commits to maintain even daylight distributions, it leaves little room for the actual thing that productivity prospers from – daylight variation. The regulations are simply too narrow, favoring high daylight levels, but with inadequate concerns to context nor purpose. Unfortunately, daylight quality, and ultimately productivity, suffers from it.
The newly inaugurated Frederiksberg School in Aarhus exemplifies an interesting dilemma. The school is built in the center of Aarhus, and is surrounded by high building densities. This means that a majority of the classrooms barely maintain minimum daylight factors of 0.7% because of obstructing buildings – however offering varying levels of daylight instead. Yet, the classrooms are not perceived as unlit nor unwelcoming – on the contrary. Contrast and varying daylight have shown to differentiate the classrooms, encouraging the children’s engagement and attentiveness for longer periods of time.
Offices have also improved productivity levels through dynamic settings and daylight variation7. Facebook has invested in dynamic mile long rooms, Yahoo has suspended home hours to increase social interaction in office hours, and Google’s new campus is designed to maximize chance encounters in dynamic settings. The cubicle is dead – but the demand for diversity is very much alive. The learning environment has expanded away from its conformities, and has suitably optimized its gross area to hold more employees – serving as an equal driver for increased profits.
The standard prEN 17037:2016 is a definite improvement from previous standards. However, there are certainly irregularities which challenge our ability to enable optimal productivity in schools and offices.
Jakob Strømann-Andersen is partner, and Head of Sustainability Engineering at Henning Larsen. Jakob holds a Ph.D. in Architectural Engineering and he is recognized for his extensive involvement in state-ofthe art research, focusing on sustainable and energy-efficient urban developments through daylight. Jakob works to develop data-driven solutions to daylight renovation and retrofitting strategies in urban perspectives, in order to create energy-efficient future communities. He is an experienced communicator of innovative and integrated design processes and daylight schemes, where he strives to connect engineering, architecture and modern technology – essentially forming the basis for successful sustainable results. Jakob was selected speaker for the annual New York Energy week 2016, at PEDCO’s fifth high performance buildings seminar 2016, and at this year’s Annual Innovative Glazing Global Summit. In addition, Jakob works as an external associate Professor at the Technical University of Denmark, lectures at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and acts as DGNB Auditor of City Districts.
CHRACTERIZING THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT TO FULFIL NON-VISUAL REQUIREMENTS IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
by Martine Knoop
Daylight is very effective in fulfilling visual and non-visual requirements in the built environment. It differentiates from electric lighting in several aspects. The dynamics in light levels and the spectral power distribution, with a strong short wavelength component, are said to be specific beneficial characteristics of the natural light source. Additionally, directionality of light seems to be of importance. Daylight from windows realizes a spatial light distribution in indoor spaces, which results in higher illumination of vertical surfaces. Increased luminance of walls positively affects room appearance and user well-being, and higher vertical illuminances at eye level are associated with less fatigue in office spaces. Furthermore, inferior and nasal illumination is said to be more effective in inducing non-visual effects.
Non-visual lighting requirements are various, but several psychological and physiological responses are affected by the spectral power distribution, light levels and directionality of the light. At present, daylight planning considers a minimum daylight coefficient (a constant) or the course of the daylight coefficient on a horizontal plane in the room, not reflecting the dynamics or absolute lighting levels, nor considering spatial light distribution. The correlated colour temperature of the light is usually set to 6500K, or colorimetric characterization of daylight is based on measurements combining diffuse (skylight) and direct light (sunlight), even though research has shown that the spectral power distribution of specific regions of the sky (sky patches) can vary largely. To properly evaluate the impact of daylight on human beings in buildings and support healthy lighting design, it is required to consider the colorimetric characteristics of sky patches separately, and to include information on the directionality and origin of the light, additionally to horizontal and vertical illuminance levels in a room. These parameters are influenced by sun position and the prevailing sky conditions, which provide the specific dynamics for all three considered aspects.
The presentation will show a differentiated view on characterisation of daylight provision, using spectral information of many sky patches and the quantification of light direction. The spectral information is based on spatially resolved spectral power distribution measurements of daylight with a sky scanner of the TU Berlin. The quantification of light direction is investigated in a further research pro-ject at the TU Berlin, and provides an insight into the influence of season and sky condition on the directionality and diffuseness of the daylight. The impact of spectral power distribution and directionality of light on non-visual effects is studied by two additional PhD students.
The approach will show the potential of daylight to induce non-visual effects through consideration of specific daylight characteristics. Whereas the approach uses detailed spectral and directional information for now, a
simplification of the assessment will be studied in a subsequent project, to ensure applicability in the design process and development of lighting controls for healthy daylighting.
Martine Knoop is Lecturer at the Chair of Lighting Technology, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany. In this role, she is responsible for research and education on indoor lighting, daylighting and colorimetry. After studying architecture and building physics at Delft University of Technology, she finalized her PhD in 2000, dealing with glare from windows and acceptance studies in daylit rooms. Before taking up her assignment at the TU Berlin, she was a senior application specialist of Philips Lighting, the Netherlands and parttime visiting professor at Eindhoven University of Technology. Her current research focuses on the unique characteristics of daylight responsible for the user preference for this light source, in order to promote and improve daylight design, as well as to develop new adaptive electric lighting solutions, to enhance user well-being and performance in indoor spaces.
IS DAYLIGHT ENOUGH? TAKING A HOLISTIC HUMAN PERPECTIVE
by Peter Barrett
The Holistic Evidence and Design (HEAD) project studied the impact on learning of physical school design elements from a sensory experience perspective. One hundred and fifty-three classrooms were assessed, together with the 3766 pupils in those spaces and their individual progress aggregated across reading, writing and math. The headline finding was that variations in the physical design of the classrooms accounted for 16% of the variation of the progress in learning of the children. Given that most variation is associated with the pupils themselves, this is a very big impact, on a similar scale to the impact of variations in the quality of teaching. It is thought that this is the first time that the holistic impact of spaces on a clear human performance metric has been successfully isolated and evidenced.
To achieve this the analysis adopted two strategies. The first was to truly attempt to look holistically at all of the sensory impacts on a person in a space, from their perspective. This involved the development of a novel analytical model, informed by the quasiregularities of single sense laboratory studies, organised within an over-arching framework rooted in the fundamental ways in which the brain converts converts individual sense inputs into an overall experience of a space. The new framework demanded measures of the characteristics of the spaces studied in the three areas of: naturalness, individualisation and (the level of) stimulation. These reflect, respectively basic animal needs for “healthy” environments, human desires for spaces we can adapt to our own preferences and an appropriate level of stimulation for the activity in hand. An easy way to recall this three part framework is in reverse order to the above, namely the SIN factors.
Having complicated things, the second strategy was to employ multi-level statistical analysis, which was possible because the data was nested: pupil, in class, in school. This meant the variations in learning at the classroom level could be isolated and linked to the physical classroom characteristics, whilst at the same time the impacts of other factors could be controlled out.
The study was not focused on light alone, but did include assessments of both natural and artificial lighting within the “naturalness” category of the SIN model. It became clear that “light” is in fact the biggest single factor influencing learning, accounting for a fifth of the impact, alongside six other design parameters. However, it is not as simple as more daylight being better. There are many interactive effects that must be addressed for the benefits to be realised, such as: glare, overheating, and the complementary need for good quality artificial light. Still focused on windows, the question of adequate ventilation is also crucial. Beyond this, there are also many other factors to be considered within the SIN framework that can provide the designer and / or user with a stimulating range of design parameters to consider, in the knowledge that there is evidence that these factors really do impact on human learning, a most basic necessity for life.
Peter Barrett is a past President of the UN-established International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB). He is Emeritus Professor of Management in Property and Construction at Salford University in the UK and Honorary Research Fellow in the Department of Education at Oxford University. Peter has for many years been a member of the High Level Group of the UK Construction Technology Platform and has been closely involved in its European equivalent. He is an international advisor to the OECD and the USbased Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture and American Institute of Architects. He has produced over one hundred and seventy single volume publications, refereed papers and reports, and has made over one hundred and ten presentations in around sixteen countries.
Professor Barrett has undertaken a wide range of research. He is currently focusing on the theme of Senses, Brain and Spaces with a particular interest in the area of primary school design and achieving optimal learning spaces. The findings of this work have, for the first time, isolated a significant influence of “Clever Classrooms” on variations in pupils’ learning. This has directly influenced, for example, the US Green Building Council and the Norwegian Education Directorate. Peter now carries out strategic consultancy on optimising the impact of school buildings on learning, most recently for the World Bank in Romania.
THE FUTURE IS LIGHT
by Per Arnold Andersen
From its beginning in 2004, the International VELUX Award for Students of Architecture has grown into one of the most important awards of its kind worldwide, with the participation so far of 4,500 student teams from more than 60 countries. The overall goal is to ensure that architectural education prioritizes daylighting as a discipline, and that a specific focus on daylight in architecture is integrated the schools´ curriculum. The overall theme is ‘Light of Tomorrow’ and the participants in the award have developed thousands of bright reflections and ideas of how daylight can be used in buildings and dense urban spaces, as well as in the remotest rural areas. Who – if not the students and their teachers in the architecture schools of the world should aspire to redefine the role of daylight in architecture, to consider healthier, more “people-friendly” and more sustainable buildings? and embark on a conversation about the future of architectural education. With a modest start in Budapest in 2005, the VELUX Daylight Symposium has grown to be an internationally recognized meeting point for daylight research, daylight practice and policymaking. It has brought together participants from different fields who rarely meet at conferences and has moved researchers, educators, architects, engineers and builders closer onto the same wavelength – with a clear willingness to share and collaborate. The first very symposium concluded that the various target groups were not necessarily on the same wavelength – but that there was a willingness to collaborate. This willingness has certainly been proved over the last ten years in discussions related to: daylight and learning – energy use and health – the effects of daylight on building occupants – how to put new eyes on the existing building stock – and how daylight can serve as a driver of change.
Also in 2005, the first Daylight and Architecture Magazine was published. The magazine has, with its 27 issues, created an ongoing communication platform – with an often provocative approach to the importance of daylight in our lives and buildings. The D/A magazine received in 2013 “German Architects’ Darling award”, in 2012 the Swedish award, “Guldbladet” and in 2010 the international “Best of Corporate Publishing Award”.
The mentioned activities represent, together with many other activities, the VELUX Group´s passion for daylight daylight, fresh air and better living environments. That was what started the company over 75 years ago and it is still what drives us forward. We want to support research, practice and education and want to have an ongoing dialogue across all disciplines related to daylighting.
Per Arnold Andersen, Architect MAA, graduated from the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, the School of Architecture in Copenhagen in 1977. He worked for more than twenty years as an architect and project manager in major Danish architect offices. In 1999, he joined the VELUX Group, where he since 2003, has been the driver of the VELUX Group’s daylight strategies and initiatives. He has been active within the European standardization on light and lighting – and has been driving force in the making of the first European standard for daylight in buildings. In 2003 he established The VELUX Group´s Knowledge Center for Daylight, Energy and Indoor Climate, with a cross disciplinary setup of architects and engineers.
Per Arnold Andersen has worked continuously with the International VELUX Award for Students of Architecture since its start in 2004. In 2005, he initiated the VELUX Daylight Symposium. Since 2008, he has been active in the editorial team of “Daylight and Architecture” (the D/A Magazine by VELUX). Today, Per Arnold Andersen serves as special advisor to the VELUX Group and to the VELUX Foundations. For the VELUX Foundations, he has been advisor for the establishment of the new international prize (2016) “The Daylight Award” that honors architects and researchers for their achievements.
USING NATURAL LIGHT AS A TOOL FOR CREATING A STRONG ARCHITECTURAL NARRATIVE
by Omar Gandhi
Our projects often begin with a simple local precedent or diagram, often a hip roof or gable form. The form is then extruded up or across, bent or flattened, the roof planes folded and pleated. Sculpted by conditions and use, the reconstituted adaptation is receptive and responsive in its keeping with a modest, formal lineage. Within the realm of the adapted forms lies opportunities for creating strong architectural narratives which link the
unique qualities of the site with the people who inhabit them. When we write the storyline of a spatial experience, daylight or the lack thereof is used as a tool that allows us to create particular moments. Much like in film or in song, where there are both high and low points along the storyline we think not only about lighting up an entire space, but rather to highlight spaces while also considering the contrast; to use light as a tool.
Omar Gandhi is a Canadian architect raised in Brampton, Ontario, currently practicing and residing in both Toronto and Halifax, Nova Scotia. Gandhi’s career began in Ontario. His early experience gave him the ability to work on a variety of projects, ranging from large commercial and institutional work in the southern regions to private residences in cottage country. Following his time in Toronto, Gandhi headed for the Maritimes. He opened his Halifaxbased design studio, Omar Gandhi Architect, in 2010 and became a registered architectural practice in 2012. In early 2016, Omar returned to his roots with the opening of his second office in downtown Toronto. Omar’s work has not gone unnoticed. Recognized as one of the world’s top 20 young architects by Wallpaper* Magazine, one of Canada’s 20 most influential people by Monocle Magazine, and as one of 2016’s ‘Emerging Voices’ by The Architectural League of New York, the sessional instructor at his Alma Mater, Dalhousie University, is most definitely leaving his mark on the architecture community.
WINDOWS AND ROOF TOPS FOR OUR WELL-BEING: THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE VALUE PROPOSAL OF INDOOR SPACES
by Marc Fontoynont
We are all convinced about the importance of bringing daylight and sunlight into buildings, as well as to provide views to the outside. But installing window components in a building envelope has its own cost: investment, installation, and maintenance. We found it interesting to compare the typical costs allocated to daylighting with other investments, mostly in domains which affect our health and well being. And to assess how they contribute to the value proposal of indoor spaces.
In a first phase, we present data dealing with typical costs (Total Cost of Ownership) associated to various lighting options in residential and non residential buildings and compare them with other possible investments associated to human comfort, health and well-being such as furniture, balconies, bathrooms, kitchen, air conditioning, lighting products, etc. The objective of this comparison is to improve understanding of the budgets which are typically allocated to daylighting, and to facilitate possible choices concerning investments related to human well-being in buildings.
In a second phase, we present the results of some interviews of market actors and real estate agents demonstrating how investments in daylight can have a positive impact on sales or rentals of residential buildings and houses. This allows us to identify possible financial benefits of daylighting solutions on the market.
In a third phase, we analyze the results of the two phases, and compare the value proposals of various options, in new constructions as well as during renovation.
This study is a contribution to raise interest on daylighting strategies among investors, beyond state of the art solutions.
Marc Fontoynont is Professor at Danish Buidling Research Institute, Aalborg University in Copenhagen, Denmark. He is currently running research on perception of lighting quality, energy efficiency and models of Total Cost of Ownership of lighting systems. He has been working until 2011 at ENTPE/CNRS, Lyon France. He is involved in CIE activities, European funded research projects and programmes from the International Energy Agency. He is currently the convener of TC169/ WG11 addressing daylight in buildings.
HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS WITH DAYLIGHT AND FRESH AIR
by Johannes Schwörer
The requirements for buildings regarding energy efficiency and sustainability have been steadily increasing over the past few years. At the same time, more and more house builders are looking for a healthy home. Founded in 1950, Schwörer Haus KG has focused on these issues since the very beginning. The most important building blocks for this include the use of the environmentally friendly material that is wood and the future-oriented application of photovoltaics. A pioneer in energy systems, Schwörer Haus was awarded the European Solar Prize as early as in 1996. When combined with a well insulated building outer, houses that previously appeared primarily to be energy consumers can be transformed into energy generators.
The issue of health in the home is also of central importance to Schwörer in the development of future-proof houses – because, regardless of good energy values, the people living in the houses expect a high level of living comfort and a healthy environment. For this, they require sufficient daylight and healthy air. This is why using building materials and building systems that have been tested for harmful substances is just as important to Schwörer as their “heat gain technology” – controlled room ventilation with heat recovery that the company has installed in every one of its house as standard since 1983. This guarantees a healthy indoor climate – as proven by the TÜV Rheinland and Sentinel Haus Institut test, during which the indoor air quality of 650 buildings was tested.
In order to ensure a sufficient amount of daylight, the size and positioning of windows in the roof and facade play an important role in the design of Schwörer houses: rooms used predominantly during the day – such as living rooms, studies, kitchens and children’s rooms – receive the ideal amount of daylight. The utilization of daylight inside the building not only contributes to the wellbeing of the occupants, it also decreases the building’s energy consumption. In this way, the use of artificial lighting is reduced and passive solar gains reduce the need for heating.
For example, the Schwörer Healthy Home demonstrates how a sustainable, energy-efficient and healthy home can be created at a good price-performance ratio. The roof in particular serves as a source of energy and light, guaranteeing both liveability and energy efficiency. The systems used here – from the roof windows, to the PV, through to the shades and controls – all show how living will look in the future: sustainable, comfortable and healthy!
Johannes Schwörer is the Managing Director of the Schwörer Group. With over 39.000 houses constructed, SchwörerHaus is among Germany’s biggest prefabricated house manufacturers. Its many innovations in the field of energy-saving HVACR (heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration) and house design have made the company a pioneer. Experience in this field, coupled with long-term company retention, have resulted in continuous further development in every field.
EN'LIGHT'EN: AN EXPLORATION OF LIGHT AND SENSATION
by Laura Johnston
Light changes constantly – from sunrise to sunset, the intensity and colour of natural light alters continually. In the natural environment light is experienced in numerous ways: filtered through shifting clouds; creating dappled patterns as it passes through branches and leaves; reflected from water projecting amazing highlights onto the surroundings that continually shift and change. Experiencing such rich and subtle nuances we are both delighted and surprised. The mood of a place can change dramatically with the sudden emergence of the sun from behind a cloud. Over the past 20 years I have completed numerous public art projects across the UK, installing glass and steel sculptures that respond to light changing our experience of the spaces they inhabit. Light and its power to transform space is at the heart of my work, specialising in the application of materials that reflect and transmit light in various ways and change during the course of a day. Building users often refer to the positive impact this sense of change brings to such spaces.
In 2016, I embarked on a project sponsored by Arts Council England, seeking to explore the positive therapeutic impact of natural lighting phenomena on human experience and the artistic interpretation, enhancement and simulation of such phenomena within architecture.
We spend much of our time in constructed spaces and exposure to natural light can be limited. Interior lighting is often designed at a constant level, carefully controlled, with the aim of achieving the optimum illumination for task performance and productivity. Such environments remove us from the changeability of the natural world. Glazing is designed with efficiency rather than sensuality in mind! When reviewing stained glass of the 12th and 13th Centuries, attention is more often drawn to the imagery – referred to as the ‘bible for the illiterate’ – than the careful and skilful orchestration of light that these membranes achieve. By treating glass in various ways, the glazing combines levels of transparency, translucency and colour, with the conscious intention of transforming the space and achieving spiritual uplift. Since this time, advances in building and glazing technologies have achieved the possibility of greater illumination in architecture but perhaps we have lost some of the sensations such mastery can muster.
The ‘En’Light’en’ project unites artists, academics and scientists in the exploration of these ideas. In scale models and real spaces, we examine how we can bring a sense of the natural world into our buildings through subtle manipulation of light and evaluate the extent to which this can change how we feel. By ‘texturing’ light and animating space, building occupiers may feel transported to the shelter of a forest canopy or experience the soothing rhythms of flowing water.
With the Durham University, we are using various qualitative and quantitative methods to monitor how people respond to such settings both physiologically and psychologically, gaining insight into what happens to us in such spaces and which of these experiences may positively influence health and wellbeing.
Dr Laura Johnston is an artist and researcher based in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. She established her studio in 1996 and since then she has completed numerous public art projects across the UK.
In 1997 Laura completed the UK’s first practice-led PhD, exploring the artistic application of coated glass in architecture. She worked with Pilkington UK, experimenting with thin film coatings that alter the refractive and reflective properties of glass. In 1998 she installed the UK’s first dichroic glass sculpture in the National Glass Centre, Sunderland and has gone on to complete numerous sculptural installations in public spaces which combine glass and other light responsive materials. Driven by the belief that our physical environment has a direct impact on how we feel, research continues to inform her studio’s approach to working with glass, light and space.
Currently Artist in Residence at Durham University and working with Biomedical Scientists, she has embarked on a detailed study with light and wellbeing as its focus. The project is exploring the beneficial effects of colour and natural lighting phenomena, examining ways in which this can be interpreted within architecture to bring texture and delight to the buildings we inhabit.
DAYLIGHTING PARADOX - EVALUATION OF DAYLIGHT BASED ON LEED V4 AND prEN-17037
by Anne Iversen
The study presented in this paper evaluates the daylight conditions based on LEED v4 and the new draft European daylight standard prEN-17037 in the new Nordea Bank Headquarters located in Ørestad North Copenhagen Denmark. The headquarter building is selected as a case study because it achieved the highest score in the inter- national certification system LEED v3, with a Platinum score, and the building obtained two credit points under the category Environmental Quality. The building is currently under construction and will be inaugurated in April 2017.
This paper focuses on evaluating daylight according to LEED v4, Option 1, which is simulations of spatial daylight conditions. In this method Spatial Daylight Autonomy (sDA) and Annual Sunlight Exposure (ASE) metrics define daylight and direct sunlight conditions in the regularly occupied areas. Projects pursuing LEED v4 certification need to fulfill ASE requirement to be awarded for sDA performance. The daylighting paradox is, however, that fulfilling sDA fails to satisfy the ASE requirement. Hence, designing to achieve the highest LEED score for daylighting and, in LEED terms, create a daylight-optimized building is not feasible. Additionally, the Annual Sunlight Exposure is a metric describing the hours with acceptable amount of direct sun. In practice, this metric is often translated into a parameter describing a glare threshold, that is, if you are within 10% ASE you have a building with acceptable direct sunlight conditions. However, optimizing for ASE will still give rise to 250 hours over a year where direct horizontal illuminance levels are above 1000lux,
which might be glary.
During 2016 a draft for a new European daylight standard prEN- 17037 became available to the public. The standard proposes a daylight evaluation method, where climate based simulations are converted to a site specific daylight factor evaluation. Furthermore, the standard proposes an evaluation method for glare in buildings based on the daylight glare probability index.
The methods outlined in LEED v4 Option 1 for daylight and direct sunlight conditions and prEN-17037 for daylight and glare are compared and discussed in the paper.
Anne Iversen currently acts as a Senior Sustainability Engineer at Henning Larsen. She holds a M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Civil Engineering, specializing in energy-efficient buildings with an emphasis on daylight performance. She demonstrates a broad experience in the implementation of complex temporal parameters such as light, shade, and the sun, supported by her former position as a researcher for SBi (Staten’s Byggeforskningsinstitut) – internationally recognized to provide advanced research for the built environment. She has contributed to numerous publications, including Daylight Calculations in Practice for Sbi and Investigation of Architectural Strategies in Relation to Daylight and Integrated Design for Journal of Green Buildings. Anne underlines both quantitative metrics from daylight simulations and qualitative experiences of the indoor environment, as the basis premise for high building performance. Anne holds an important role in the Department of Sustainability and forms the unique link between state-of–the-art research and practice. She is a key figure in the design of the new Nordea Bank HQ in Copenhagen, as well as in the extension of Herlev Hospital in Denmark, where her sustainable visions have secured and corroborated high-quality design results.
DAYLIGHT LEVELS IN EXISTING SWEDISH BUILDINGS AS A BASE FOR MODERNIZED NATIONAL REGULATIONS
by Marie-Claude Dubois
Daylight has always been a precious commodity in Sweden but recent trends towards urban densification coupled with stringent energy and acoustic requirements jeopardize basic daylight access. Poor daylight access is not only connected to poor indoor environments but also to an increased dependency on electrical lighting. Previous research indicates that in Swedish residential buildings, better daylight utilization could potentially yield a 25% reduction of electricity use for lights. While mandated daylight levels provide a potential safeguard against poor daylighting, daylight requirements were largely ignored until the environmental certification system Miljöbyggnad was introduced in 2005. Within this scheme, compliance with the building code’s point daylight factor criteria is compulsory. As this certification scheme has gained in popularity, so too has interest in the national regulations. Unfortunately, the current regulations are based on outdated calculation methods. Furthermore, there is a lack of evidence supporting its mandated threshold of a 1% point daylight factor (DFp) at half room’s depth.
With the aim of providing valuable information to the authorities in their update of the building code, an exhaustive simulation study of daylighting in the existing residential building stock was undertaken. This paper presents a cross analysis of the output data, drawing relations between building age, context, height, orientation and daylight performance metrics. A total of 100 buildings were chosen to represent common Swedish multifamily housing typologies built between 1875 and 1990. These buildings were modelled using Rhinoceros, DIVA and Grasshopper/Honeybee suite. The process entailed calculating nearly fifteen- thousand rooms in their surroundings. Results show that while the average DFp value for all the studied rooms is clearly above 1%, this threshold is not met in approximately half of the rooms tested. Kitchens generally obtained the lowest daylight levels in spite of the fact that inhabitants expressed their need for higher daylight levels in these rooms. Buildings in urban contexts fared poorly but perhaps most surprising was the fact that of all the buildings tested, only eight were fully compliant. Another important finding is that the code’s simplified method based on window to floor area ratio had limited applicability due to geometric limitations inherent in the method. In summary, the findings of this study support the need for a fundamental reformulation of the current Swedish daylight legislation as it pertains to multi-family residential build- ings. Particularly so if the regulations are to successfully maintain a balance between daylighting and urban densification.
Marie-Claude Dubois is associate professor at the Division of Energy and Building Design at Lund University, Sweden and environmental specialist at White Architects, Malmö, Sweden. She has previously been associate professor (2003-2010) at Laval
University, in Canada, and senior researcher (2001-2003) at the Danish Building Research Institute after award of her PhD in Construction and Architecture at Lund University (2001). She has contributed as author or co-author to some 100 scientific communications mainly in the field of daylighting, energy-efficient buildings, and sustainable architecture. She has also participated in the lighting and energy design or environmental certification of more than 30 buildings around the world. In her career, she has been leader of Subtask D of International Energy Agency IEA-SHC Task 50 on “Advanced Lighting Solutions for Retrofitting Buildings” and of Subtask B of IEA Task 40 on “Solar Energy and Architecture”.
Paul Rogers is an architect and Sustainability Coordinator at BAU Architects in Stockholm. A registered BREEAM assessor, he leads a division of three daylight specialists working with daylight certification of buildings. He is founder of the LinkedIn discussion forum ‘Svensk dagsljusberäkning’ (Swedish daylight calculation) which has nearly 300 members. Along with select members of this group, he is working to advance domestic daylight certification methodologies and to help Swedish Building code authorities modernize the country’s daylight regulations. He is also founder of an ongoing initiative which challenges Swedish urban planning authorities to better integrate daylight into municipal planning process.
ESTABLISHING URBAN SCALE DAYLIGHT ASSESSMENT IN THE PLANNING PROCESS: A REPORT FROM THE BATTLEFIELD
by Paul Rogers
It is clear that increasing urban density is a necessary strategy for cities as they move towards more sustainable futures. It should not be lost however that increasing density, if not done in an informed manner, can have catastrophic effects on daylight levels inside buildings. Daylight regulations at the building level afford a degree of protection for daylight, but an area’s zoning plan can often make compliance with such regulations difficult if not impossible from the start. Given that urban density is a particularly important determinant of daylight access, monitoring the effect of early stage planning decisions on daylight makes good sense.
Sweden presents an interesting case study, as over the past decade, a rapid increase in land prices has fueled a move towards increasingly densely planned settlements. The Swedish climate, with its dark winter months, has posed a formidable challenge however. The result has been that many recently planned settlements struggle to meet the code requirements for daylight. As a means of assessing the effects of early stage planning decisions on daylight, the metric Vertical Sky Component (VSC) has started to make its way into the planning process. Urban scale daylight modelling however is unfamiliar to most practitioners so, in an effort to establish a point of reference for this approach, a project was undertaken showing VSC results along with Floor Area Ratio (FAR) data for 40 existing urban districts. The basic idea is that planners can more easily understand and interpret results generated for new developments if they are able to compare their results with those for neighborhoods they are already familiar with.
In addition to presenting VSC and FAR results for the selected urban districts, this paper also addresses the inherent challenges and restrictions of introducing a new metric into an already complex planning process. The potential for introduction of climate based daylight metrics in the future for planning purposes is also discussed. Results show that, although urban density and VSC are clearly related, there are instances where a number of urban typologies clearly perform better than others. This suggests that urban daylight modeling does not necessarily restrict development but rather can function as a tool to optimize building form. Though somewhat outdated when compared with modern
climate based assessment methods, the Vertical Sky Component metric is conceptually simple, easy to calculate and, perhaps most importantly, relates closely to the methodologies of the current Swedish building code. As such, its use in the planning process should be considered a solid first step to protecting access to daylight.
Paul Rogers is an architect and Sustainability Coordinator at BAU Architects in Stockholm. A registered BREEAM assessor, he leads a division of three daylight specialists working with daylight certification of buildings. He is founder of the LinkedIn discussion forum ‘Svensk dagsljusberäkning’ (Swedish daylight calculation) which has nearly 300 members. Along with select members of this group, he is working to advance domestic daylight certification methodologies and to help Swedish Building code authorities modernize the country’s daylight regulations. He is also founder of an ongoing initiative which challenges Swedish urban planning authorities to better integrate daylight into municipal planning process.
DAYLIGHT AT MASTERPLAN STAGE
by Paula Longato and Alexander Rotsch
There is a growing interest in cities. We are more engaged in advising planners and developers on means to optimize value in existing or constrained assets. It is becoming harder and harder to create value out of these. But a lighting designer can bring his or her experience of lighting and demonstrate how a carefully planned massing can create beneficial and well-exposed spaces. Well exposed apartments or a series of offices or open areas will attract more interest, more users, and more value.
A city is an evolving entity: we need to be able to design new elements within the existing complex systems. Daylight and sunlight are a fragile attribute of this existing urban texture: a taller building, poorly planned will create a shadow for the years to come and will completely transform a place. On the other hand a taller building may be the answer to the growing population; therefore a taller building may be a necessity. How can we ensure that this necessity of growth is combined with the necessity to preserve a certain city look, a character, with success? Sunlight and daylight availability is often defined at masterplan stage as a result of a volumetric distribution. This is often the result of program requirements and planning restrictions but very seldom is driven by daylight and sunlight. This is because there is not a common method for informing the designers of daylight and sunlight availability at masterplan design. UK has a solid method for planning of daylight and sunlight at masterplan stage, but this method is fine-tuned on the specific climate and latitude of the country. We aim to have a generalized tool and benchmarks that will allow planners to apply good design principles for daylight and sunlight access at masterplan stage, for any site condition.
A new method to assess the character of daylight in the urban environment is proposed. A tool using multi-masking images overlaid enables us to analyze the daylight character of an urban space, which can then be adjusted to the desired planning goal. It could happen that an area which will be a park in the future gets overlit. Too much daylight can be uncomfortable for such a space and therefore planners now have a tool to decide how to overcome such issues. The façade of a building receives too less daylight because the adjacent buildings are too tall? This can be easily identified with the methodology and tool proposed.
Setting out thresholds for different latitudes across the globe will be the next challenge. What is considered to be enough daylight in a European city may not be as good for an Asian city and vice-versa. In a few months time we hope to have come up with some defined targets of what is good daylight in the urban space, at masterplan stage for different cities in different latitudes. While we look further into the future, there might be an opportunity to improve urban planning legislation, having daylight as a main driver.
Paula Longato is a lighting designer with the Arup team in Berlin. Paula studied Architecture and Urbanism in Sao Paulo, Brazil. After her studies she worked as an architect for leading construction firms and later as a lighting designer. In 2006 she moved to Germany to do her master’s degree in Architectural Lighting Design, which she concluded with her thesis on Daylighting in Office Buildings. Since 2008, Paula has worked with the Arup lighting team in Berlin and has since delivered several international projects, including buildings in the educational, commercial, transportation, private and public sectors. Some of these projects received lighting design awards from recognized organizations. Paula’s passion for daylight and lighting can be seen in her continuous effort to create sustainable and human-centric designs.
Alexander Rotsch is leading the Lighting Design Unit for Arup in Germany. The experienced, passionate and multiple award-winning lighting designer joined Arup in Berlin 2012. Over the last 16 years, he has been working as a team leader and project manager successfully executing more than 50 national and international projects. Alexander studied architecture at the Bauhaus-University in Weimar and at the École Nationale Supérieure d ‘Architecture in Paris. He specialized in daylight and architectural lighting design and the development of high-quality custom solutions for lighting and luminaires. The Städel Museum in Frankfurt, which has won six lighting design awards worldwide, or the new headquarters for Amorepacific in Seoul, a large Korean cosmetics company, are both projects bearing his mark for sophisticated lighting design.
QUANTITATIVE & QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF VISUAL COMFORT IN OFFICES
by Laura Thuillier and Daniele Constantini
While increasingly highlighted in new construction, daylight still represents a largely unexploited resource in existing buildings, for saving energy and improving occupant’s comfort. It is well known that daylighting has a positive impact on people health and wellbeing; this also stands true for offices occupants who benefit of a productivity and concentration improvement due to well-daylit workplaces.
In this frame, there is a need for a nonintrusive daylighting diagnosis of ex-isting offices in order to help the discussion about comfort with designers, owners, and occupants. Actually, multiple simulation tools are today available and used in building industry to assess daylight levels in a space. Measurements tools also exist but are usually complex, very intrusive and may be only handled by experts. To easily perform measurements, Saint- Gobain developed a wireless and lowcost setup for illuminance measurements which, due to its small footprint and ease of installation, is particularly suitable for occupied offices.
Moreover, in order to thoroughly assess the visual dimension of working environment on employees, we propose to consider not only daylighting but to extend the diagnosis to a more complete characterization. We decided to adopt in our research a human-centric approach, including all aspects of visual comfort. We found four main indicators to define visual comfort: natural light, artificial light, views (outside and inside), and quality of interior space. This paper aims at introducing a quick methodology and protocol to assess overall visual comfort by an expert in about 15 minutes. The proposed diagnosis is a tool with 40 steps of evaluation that guides the expert towards a quantitative evaluation of the four representative indicators of visual comfort. This protocol allows obtaining an expert diagnosis which fits the occupant perception of visual comfort. All steps were calibrated thanks to the collaboration with occupants, using indepth sociologic interviews in some reference offices. We will present the visual comfort assessments of two offices, performing measurements with the new light meters setup and the quick diagnosis tool. The result of the expert diagnosis is particularly useful to forecast discomfort areas and fuel a discussion around possible technical solutions to improve visual comfort.
In a second time, we will show the use of this diagnosis to illustrate a test case in which offices were retrofitted with SageGlass® electrochromic glazing. In particular the expert diagnosis was used to underline key initial concerns related to glare, quality of the view and artificial lighting use. Then, the effect of electrochromic glazing was quantified thanks to measurements with the wireless setup and modelling. In conclusion, the test case demonstrates the possibility to improve overall visual comfort, by ensuring effective glare protection and preserved views while at the same time maximizing daylight admission, to ensure a high energy performance.
Laura Thuillier is part of the Energy Performance of Buildings and Daylighting group at the Chantereine Research and Development Center (CRDC) of Saint-Gobain since 2016 as a Development Engineer. Before that, she was an intern for the modeling Competence Center at CRDC. She received a Master of Engineering in Materials Science from the Ecole Européenne d’ingénieurs en génie des matériaux in 2015. Laura is in charge of Visual Comfort and Daylighting activities at CRDC, developing measurement and modeling capacities as well as monitoring comfort criteria with respect to energy performance and daylighting in green building labels and the academic community.
SUNLIGHT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR ILLUMINATION, STUDIES FROM HIGH LATITUDES
by Barbara Matusiak
The most profound paradox in the daylighting of buildings is related to the utilization of direct sunlight. Huge luminous intensity creates great potential for its utilization as a light source. However, in common practice sunlight is mostly kept away by various forms of sun shading devices. At most work places electric light is used for lighting even during sunny days.
The last twenty years of research provides us systematically with new evidences about beneficial and therapeutic effects of sunlight in architectural spaces. To create buildings that promote health, we need to find better ways to fully exploit sunlight’s benefits. We need to optimize its penetration and find smarter ways to distribute it in interiors so it certainly does not create visual or thermal discomfort. The task is especially challenging in regions with high frequency of overcast sky, where the utilization of sunlight should not be done at the expense of effective utilization of diffused light from the sky. The paper discusses new solutions which are best suitable for regions located at high latitudes and refers to both apartment and office buildings.
The solutions for apartment buildings are exemplified by a detached one-family house in Trondheim were the room shape, roof sloping, windows, skylight design and mirrors in the skylight well are combined for an exceptional result which is even more accentuated by very original coloration of the walls. The intensity of sunlight is reduced by distributing the light over the ceiling/ walls in a way that ensures that the sunlight never falls down on occupants. The solutions for offices are exemplified by two buildings at the university campus at NTNU in Trondheim. In the first one workplaces for students of architecture are located. The demands for visual comfort are high as students work here with analog drawings and models as well as with computer tasks. The combination of windows and skylights turned out to function very well especially after refurbishment when the old plastic skylights were replaced by clear glazing. Additionally, specular material was used in skylight wells and specially developed sunlight scattering transparent acrylic plates were positioned under the skylights. During the development of the scattering plates, the care has been taken to keep as high perforation degree as possible to maximize penetration of diffused light from the sky in periods without sun. The scattering plates distribute sunlight evenly in the room creating also huge potential for energy savings for lighting as the illuminance on worktables is more than doubled in all daylight conditions. The project has been partly described in the book “Energy Efficient Buildings”, ISBN 978-953-51- 4877-7, 12.2016.
A different design of the sunlight scattering acrylic plates has been developed for a high rise office building. The rooms have rather high south oriented windows. The new sunlight scattering panels are positioned in the upper part of the window keeping possibility for view and control of glare (white venetian blinds) in the lower part. As the sunlight scattering panels are not shaded, they will ensure adequate and comfortable illumination of the room exclusively with sunlight and therefore prevent usage of electric light during sunshine time. The solutions were created over the last few years by the Light & Colour Group at NTNU, Norway.
Barbara Szybinska Matusiak has seven years’ experience in architectural practice. During this period she won several closed architectural competitions in Norway. She joined the Faculty of Architecture at NTNU in 1994 as a research fellow. Her doctoral project, supervised by Professor Øyvind Aschehoug, was devoted to daylighting in linear atrium buildings at high latitudes (finished 1998). Since then she has been involved in many Norwegian and international scientific projects dealing with daylighting and artificial lighting in architecture, e.g. project manager of the “Visual environment in apartment buildings”, partner in the “Translucent Façade” project and a partner/member of SYN-TES, the Nordic network. Nowadays she leads two RCN projects: “DayLighting” and “HOME”.
She is also strongly involved in the activities of the international organizations: CIE, AIC and IEA and is the Norwegian representative in the CEN group working with the proposal of a new European standard for daylighting in buildings.
She designed the artificial sky and artificial sun for the Daylight laboratory and the newest version of the full-scale room laboratory ROMLAB. Her teaching activities (master courses) are devoted to daylight, artificial light and colour in architecture.
DESIGNING WITH DAYLIGHT
by Paula Esquivias
There are numerous parameters which affect daylight capture in buildings, determining their daylight potential. These parameters range from those which define the external conditions of the building, such as climate or surrounding, to devices for solar protection, passing through the configuration and materiality of openings. The new daylight metrics, which consider the direct and diffuse components of daylight and are linked to the daylight availability of the location of the building, determined by the climatic conditions, are based on the cumulative analysis of the hourly daylight illuminances profile in each point of study of the space. While they have the ability to give for each point the percentage of time in which certain illuminance requirements are achieved, showing the results as a false colour map keeping the spatial information, they are not able to tell if those illuminances are got by all sensor points simultaneously. The temporal information is comprised by the cumulative analysis.
Considering the minimum and maximum thresholds of illuminance in a space to develop the majority of the visual task, it means 300 and 3000 lux, by means of a temporal analysis of the hourly daylight illuminances profile of every point of study is possible to provide information about the percentage of those points which achieves, in the same time, daylight illuminances ranged between those thresholds, showing a temporal map. While the spatial information is missed, but can be given by a complementary false colour map of the metric UDI300- 3000, the temporal analysis can be used to show the daylighting potential of a space. The resulting new metric, based on a temporal analysis, is named “simultaneous Useful Daylight Illuminances” (sUDI).
In order to know the impact of the main parameters influencing the daylighting potential of a space, a comparative analysis of fourteen different parameters has been planned. For each parameter a set of variations has been simulated, obtaining for each variation the percentage of points of study, percentage of the workplane, that achieve a daylight illuminance between 300 and 3000 lux for each diurnal hour of a year. Finally, the daylighting potential for each model has been analysed and the impact of each model over this new climate based daylight metric has been also studied.
After analysing the impact factor of each parameter over sUDI300-3000, is possible to draw a route map, especially for early building design, in order to give some indications about which parameters require more attention and also their prioritisation during building design in order to get a well and balanced daylighting.
Paula M. Esquivias is an architect and PhD student focusing her research into climate-based daylighting and thermal analysis in order to provide a better understanding of the effect of the sun radiation into our buildings for getting a balance between visual and thermal comfort. She acts as a consultant to architects on daylighting, energy performance and energy labelling. She has also been lecturer in energy labelling, sustainable energy resources in buildings, lighting and daylighting.
Daylight is proven to have beneficial effects on health and mood. It is especially important to provide healthcare buildings with good daylighting to contribute to the physical and psychological well-being of patients and staff. Good daylighting can sometimes be in conflict with thermal comfort or a reduced space heating/cooling energy use. This is especially true when dealing with high ratings in environmental certification where the level of demand is quite high in all aspects. A methodology was developed by the Digital Sustainable Design group of White Arkitekter (Stockholm) to balance these conflicting interests to ensure good daylight performance from the first stages of the building design. This methodology was successfully applied as a pilot to the design of two hospital buildings in the center of Malmö (Sweden). Both buildings are required to comply with the highest level (GOLD) of the environmental certification system Miljöbyggnad.
The buildings’ openings should be sized and distributed throughout the facades to provide good daylighting to concerned spaces. On the other hand, their size should be limited to avoid excessive solar heat gains and transmission and infiltration heat losses in winter. The study consisted on a parametric optimization of the window and shading sizes for each of the façade modules on the buildings to attain good daylight levels without jeopardizing thermal comfort and the energy performance of the building. Automatic or manual solar shading devices, preferably externally placed, are often required to limit the solar heat gains during the cooling season. These devices should cover enough glazed area so as to avoid overheating problems. On the other hand, shading devices produce an important decrease in daylight levels when drawn. This should be avoided as much as possible by limiting their size.
The optimization methodology uses a specially developed iterative algorithm that includes daylight and peak solar radiation simulations. It was developed using the graphical algorithm editor Grasshopper. The study should be applied in early stage, when only the general shape of the building has been sketched. Both the façade design and the interior layout are part of the parameters studied. The methodology is structured in two phases. Facade modules with variable window sizes were predesigned for each of the buildings. Phase one informs of the maximum room depth (MRD) that can potentially comply with the daylight requirement considering all facade modules and the largest possible window size. This information can be used to fit the activities that require daylighting in areas with a good daylight access. Once the preliminary room depths have been determined phase two determines the optimal window and shading areas for each façade module to comply with the daylight and solar heat gains requirements specified for each project.
Alejandro Pacheco Diéguez works as a Digital Sustainable Design Specialist at White arkitekter in Stockholm. Alejandro has a Master’s in Architecture from Universidad de Sevilla (Spain) and a Master’s in Environmental Building Design from LTH (Lund, Sweden). In Lund, he specialised in daylight optimisation through collaboration on research projects in that area. Soon after, he started working as an environmental specialist at the BAU architecture studio in Stockholm, where he developed his skills with daylight simulations and gained experience using parametric tools. He currently works at White arkitekter, where he combines his environmental design expertise with the use of parametric tools. His main fields of interest include building design and city planning optimisation.
Maha Shalaby works as an architect and a sustainability specialist at White Arkitekter with eight years of experience in practice, research and teaching. She studied her Masters’ in Energy Efficiency from Lund university, Sweden and she currently works with various simulations including simple and advanced daylight studies. Her passion lies in integrating her environmental design expertise with parametric tools and using the results from the assessments to inform the design resulting in a holistic way of working. Maha’s additional interests include visual comfort, circadian light assessment, assessing daylight quality in a space, and the perception of the space in virtual reality.
A COMPARATIVE GAZE RESPONSIVE COMFORT EVALUATION FOR GLARE CONTROL STRATEGIES USING GAZE BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS AND DISCOMFORT GLARE ASSESSMENT
by Mandana Sarey Khanie
Visual comfort is one of the main concerns for ensuring health and wellbeing in building sector recommended by sustainability certification methods such as British Environmental Assessment (BREEAM). The visual comfort topic is addressed under the issue criteria Hea 01 in the current version of the BREEAM rating system to ensure visual performance and comfort for building occupants for best practice. With the aim of bringing recognition to low environmental impact buildings, a scoring system followed by recommendations such as glare control strategies are defined. Glare control strategies are mainly recommended to design out discomforting and disabling glare for best integration of daylight bringing one credit point to the assessment. Nevertheless, in geographical regions lying between 55-60 latitude, selections of glaze control strategies are sensitized due to low sun angle position which is not captured by many recommended glare control compliant forms. In this study seven glare control forms are evaluated for adaptation in the mentioned geographical area. The evaluation method is based on a gaze responsive comfort assessment method where a parallel comparative approach for gaze behavior and visual comfort prediction is adopted. Depending on the occupants’ seating position and gaze direction, light distribution in the field-of-view can range from interesting highlights to visually discomforting situations which make visual comfort highly dependent on dynamics of occupants’ gaze-direction. Therefore gaze-behavior study which identifies gaze responses to light variations across the FOV was done using a predicting gaze responsive light-driven (GRL) model. This model is developed on an experimental study using a novel gaze-driven photometry for observing natural gaze behavior under conditions implicitly constrained by the real world luminous environment. On the other hand, there are several discomfort glare metrics that can be used to predict glare risks. For daylight induced glare the commonly used glare metric is daylight glare probability which was used in this study. Implementing the two prediction models, a simulation study was done for a generic side-lit room. Seven glare control complaint forms were compared.
We will present here the comparative gaze responsive comfort evaluation and its application in practice on a very specific requirement for environmentally certified building evaluation for seven glare control systems.
Mandana Sarey Khanie is currently a Postdoctoral researcher at Technical University of Denmark at the Building and Energy section of civil engineering department where she is focusing on energy and daylight question in residential buildings. Mandana completed her PhD Thesis at interdisciplinary Laboratory of Performance-Integrated Design (LIPID) at EPFL focusing on the development of a novel gaze-driven photometry for observing natural gaze behavior in relation to conditions implicitly constrained by real world luminous environment. The research was funded thereafter by Swiss National Foundation (SNSF) and continued towards development of a preliminary mathematical model (GRL) for gaze response predictions in relation to light compositions in architectural spaces. Mandana has experiences as scientific consultant for Smart-living lab, Switzerland, Daylight specialist at Åf groups, Sweden, and architectural lighting consultant.
TEMPORAL VARIABILITY ON DISCOMFORT GLARE FROM DAYLIGHT
by Michael Kent
Discomfort glare is generally considered an annoyance or distraction caused by sources of non-uniform or high luminance within the field of view of an observer. The conditions that give rise to this phenomenon have not yet been fully characterized, this being particularly evident in the presence of large sources of luminance such as daylight from windows. When subjective ratings of glare sensation are correlated with calculated glare indices, in fact, a large scatter in responses can often be observed, this suggesting that discomfort glare may be dependent on other variables than the physical and photometric parameters typically embedded in glare formulae.
Previous experiments conducted by the authors under a highly controlled laboratory setting detected statistical and substantive evidence of increased tolerance to luminance increase from an artificial light source as the day progressed. Further laboratory studies by the authors also revealed a statistically significant and practically relevant influence of several temporal variables – e.g., fatigue, hunger, caffeine intake, mood, prior (day)light exposure, sky condition – on the glare sensation reported by test subjects.
Having established the existence of a temporal effect on glare response from artificial light, a semi-controlled study was set up in a test-room with direct access to daylight and to an external view. Under a repeated-measures design, 40 participants were instructed to provide glare sensation votes (GSVs) at 3 test sessions evenly distributed at 3-hour intervals, randomised over consecutive days, whilst performing a series of 3 visual tasks under 2 shading conditions. Selfassessments of temporal variables were provided by test subjects along with their glare assessment, and their ratings of view importance. Photometric measurements of the observer’s field of view were recorded during the subjective assessments, instantaneously capturing the luminous environment with three photometric instruments: a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera equipped with a fish-eye lens, an illuminance chromameter, and a series of sensors measuring desk level and window sill horizontal illuminance. High Dynamic Range Images were created by the software Photosphere and evaluated by the Evalglare tool. In the analysis of the data, a mixed-effects multilevel model – partitioning sources of variability associated with variables that were experimentally manipulated (fixed-effects) from that of temporal variables that were subject-dependent (randomeffects) – detected a statistically significant and practically relevant effect of time of the day on the reported levels of glare sensation. The findings from this experiment showed a tendency towards an increased tolerance to the discomfort given by the glare source as the day progresses. Rigorous statistical analysis also revealed that the variability (variance components) associated with the temporal variables partially confounded the effect of time of the day on glare response. Finally, statistically significant and practically relevant evidence of an influence of view importance on glare response was also detected. The results from this test-room study support the findings previously derived under controlled laboratory conditions, suggesting that the physical and photometric parameters typically found in glare indices and formulae might not be sufficient to accurately describe and rigorously predict the subjective evaluation of glare sensation from natural and artificial light.
Michael Kent is a researcher and architectural engineer working in the field of lighting and daylighting, indoor environmental quality and human factors in building design. During his doctorate, he explored the relationship between glare response and the time of the day. Currently, his focus lies on human (psycho) physiological responses to luminous stimuli and the advancements in experimental methodology and statistical techniques in built environment research.
VIRTUAL REALITY - GETTING IN THE "ZONE"
by Christoph Reinhart
Christoph Reinhart is a building scientist and architectural educator working in the field of daylighting, sustainable building design and environmental modeling. At MIT he is leading the Sustainable Design Lab, an interdisciplinary group with a grounding in architecture that develops design workflows, planning tools and metrics to evaluate the environmental performance of buildings and neighborhoods. Design tools originating from the group – such as DIVA, DAYSIM and umi – are used in practice and education in over 90 countries.
04 May 2017
FREEDOM OF USE
by Anne Lacaton
Architecture is about freedom, generosity, pleasure. Far beyond any aesthetic and formal determination, beyond the rules, standards and programs, buildings are beautiful when people feel well in them, when the light inside is beautiful, and the air is pleasant, when the exchange with the outside seems easy and gentle, and when uses and sensations are unexpected.
The freedom of use, the capacity of the space, the flexibility, to give the possibility of appropriation, to give importance to people and uses, are the important qualities we aim in designing the projects. This freedom of use refers to the concept of INHABITING. Inhabiting conveys pleasure, generosity, the freedom to occupy a space, beyond the functional. It challenges us to think about the possibilities and capacities of the space around and ahead of oneself. Designing architecture on the basis of the notion of inhabiting amounts to constructing space from the inside, and not from the outside. This set down an intention for precision, and attention. A space for living, or for any use, must be generous, comfortable, adaptable, flexible, luxurious, affordable. Generosity of space means giving more space to each, for any program, to make possible adaptation, appropriation.
Large spaces procure a vital sense of escape and freedom. Our aim is to build as much extra space as the programmed space. This extra space has not a defined function. It is free for uses. It means Building larger. Building double, for any program, to loosen the constraints, to loosen norms and to allow more uses and improvisation. It means offer twice more space, with the same cost to be affordable for everyone to create other possibilities, other freedoms, new ways of inhabiting A dwelling should give the same facilities as a « villa ». The idea of luxury is therefore redefined in terms of generosity, freedom of use and pleasure.
Anne Lacaton born in France in 1955. Graduated from the School of architecture of Bordeaux in 1980. Diploma in Urban Planning at the university of Bordeaux in 1984. Visiting professor at the University of Madrid, Master Housing 2007-2013, at the EPFL Lausanne, 2004, 2006 and 2010-11, University of Florida, Ivan Smith Studio in 2012, University of NYBuffalo, Clarkson Chair in 2013, at the Pavillon Neuflize OBC in Palais de Tokyo, Paris, in 2013-2014, at University of Sassari, Alghero in 2014, at Harvard GSD : Kenzo Tange 2011 & Design critic 2015, at theTU Delft winter sem 2016-17.
from energy efficiency towards wellbeing - introducing interdisciplinary research for good living
by Astrid Achatz
The Fraunhofer Building Innovation Alliance was founded in 2008 to offer the construction industry a central contact point for research and development within Fraunhofer. Here 14 Fraunhofer institutes have joined together to develop new and innovative topics as answers to the current challenges of building industry. Furthermore, the alliance is intended to function as an interface between business, research and politics and thereby shaping future construction. One of its eight business fields is “comfort and health”, which also a central concern concern of the political initiative “Gutes Wohnen”, an interdisciplinary platform of leading construction companies, renowned research institutes and experts from building science and health. As a partner, Fraunhofer Building Innovation Alliance supports the goal of “Gutes Wohnen” to raise awareness in politics and public of what good living is and what impact it has on human well-being, health, productivity and performance. People in industrialized nations spend up to 90 percent of their lives indoors. While for our ancestors buildings were meant as shelters against a hostile environment, we nowadays have to try to restore the access to important environmental factors, such as daylight or fresh air, which are fundamentally necessary for our wellbeing and health.
In current projects, Fraunhofer scientists examine relevant building factors to develop optimal comfort with minimum consumption of energy and resources. The human being perceives approximately 80-90 percent of information visually. Because of that, lighting has a big impact on the performance of students or office workers. Great significance is therefore assigned to the configuration and planning of the visual environment that suits this requirement. In the presentation some examples of research on lighting optimization will be given. Carefully
planned complex fenestration systems allow using interior spaces without supplying heating energy or artificial light for about 80 percent of the time, thus significantly reducing the energy need for heating and lighting as well as the use of light sources. The Fraunhofer scientists focus on developing assessment methods and technologies to gain planning security
regarding the light technology of façades. At the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, measuring facilities, such as an artificial sky for the daylighting evaluation of building models or light laboratories for experimental studies on the physiological and psychological effects of light enable profound light research.
Astrid Achatz is Head of Central Office Fraunhofer Building Innovation Alliance. During and after her studies of biology at the University of Vienna (diploma in 1997) Astrid Achatz coordinated different interdisciplinary research projects at BOKU (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna) and the Environment Agency Austria.
After her move to Germany, Astrid pursued her second major interest in her further education as a Diplom Mentaltrainer and worked as freelance coach and trainer in Passau and Munich.
In 2010 she returned to science as Assistant to the Management of the Fraunhofer Building Innovation Alliance. After a year at Fraunhofer Headquarters from August 2015 until September 2016 as Manager Business Model Development, she became the Head of Central Office of Fraunhofer
Building Innovation Alliance.
DAYLIGHTING THE MILLENNIALS
by Christoph Reinhart
For today’s knowledge workers, the boundaries between work and private lives are eroding. We can now work anywhere and anytime: at Starbucks, in the checkout line at Whole Foods and by the pool during Spring break. While at work, we may play Pokemon Go, go running or catch a nap. As our schedules are becoming unique imprints of our lifestyle choices, our building and lighting concepts need to become flexible enough to accommodate conflicting needs where one occupant may go for a blue-light fix along with a double shot espresso while her colleague opts for low color temperature lighting and herbal tea. What role is left for daylighting design when occupants’ needs are trailing out of sync with natural lighting cycles? Drawing on recent work at the MIT Sustainable Design Lab on the use of electronic screens in daylit spaces, the flow of people through cities as well as the modeling of circadian lighting exposure, the author will contemplate on opportunities of how today’s architects may integrate emerging lighting requirements within broader sustainable design concepts.
Christoph Reinhart is a building scientist and architectural educator working in the field of daylighting, sustainable building design and environmental modeling. At MIT he is leading the Sustainable Design Lab, an interdisciplinary group with a grounding in
architecture that develops design workflows, planning tools and metrics to evaluate the environmental performance of buildings and neighborhoods. Design tools originating from the group – such as DIVA, DAYSIM and umi – are used in practice and education in over 90 countries.
DYNAMICS OF DAYLIGHTING INSIDE OUT
by Marilyne Andersen
Daylighting is by nature a multi-dimensional quality in a space. It reveals its volumes and surfaces in a dynamic way, influences visual interest and enables visual performance while also constraining it, and has physiological and behavioral impacts on the space’s occupants. All these effects need to be brought together to lead to a satisfying space design and experience with one recurring question : how to best balance the resources we have available (solar radiation, energy, climate, natural or built surroundings) to fulfill, at minimum and beyond, occupants’ physiological and emotional needs.
These needs are themselves multifaceted as building occupants interact with their environment in many different ways: as users of a (work)space who perform tasks for which comfortable visual and thermal conditions are needed, as witnesses of a delightful space who want to enjoy it and seek to experience its choreography of geometry and light dynamics, as human inhabitants of a living space who need to be in an environment conducive to health, as beneficiaries of the planet’s resources concerned about minimizing energy loads associated with buildings, whether for lighting, heating or cooling.
The challenges we face are thus numerous in aiming for « good daylighting ». Trade-offs have to be found to limit visual discomfort while ensuring sufficient light exposure although we still don’t know how much exposure to light we actually need over a day, or a week, or a season to fulfill our physiological needs. We also have to embrace emotional aspects of daylight in our quest for better solutions, and thus broaden the range of performance predictors by including perceptual qualities in a consistent way.
Spectrally and time-dependent, human-centric, field-of-view based and immersive approaches to investigating daylight performance seem highly promising to address some of these challenges.
Marilyne Andersen is Full Professor in Sustainable Construction Technologies at EPFL in Switzerland, and Dean of the School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering. She is the head of the Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Performance-Integrated Design (LIPID) since 2010. Before joining EPFL’s faculty, she was an Associate Professor at MIT in the Building Technology Program and the Head of the MIT Daylighting Lab that she founded in 2004. Marilyne Andersen owns a MSc in Physics and specialized in daylighting through her PhD in Building Physics at EPFL and LBNL in California. Her research focuses on building performance in the architectural context, with a special interest in the use and optimization of daylight and passive solar strategies. She pursues pioneering work in comfort and health implications of daylight as well as low-energy building technologies. This interdisciplinary work at the interface between the domains of architectural design, building engineering and more fundamental science has opened new development and cooperation perspectives between otherwise remote research fields.
She is the author of over 90 refereed scientific papers, recipient of several awards including the prestigious Daylight Research Award 2016, and is a member of the Board of the LafargeHolcim Foundation for Sustainable Construction.
VALUE CREATION BY ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - DAYLIGHT AS A POSITIVE DRIVER
by Peter Sattrup
We shouldn’t be content with technical standards alone as a guarantee for sustainability. We need to aim higher, and ask ourselves how architecture contributes to societal development in a wider sense, not least to maintain high aspirations for the quality of the built environment. For this purpose, the Association of Danish Architectural Firms asked its members to nominate built projects that had documented social, environmental and economic value creation. The results show surprisingly powerful effects, and daylight plays a strong role in many of the best cases.
How does architecture create value? Value is not an inherent property of an object or a design. Rather, value is attributed to things – built environments in the case of architectural design – as a result of how users and communities interpret and engage with them, which is why the dialogic, analytic and empathic aspects of architects’ design processes are so essential to the value creation of buildings and urban environments. Architecture addresses the fundamental human need for a healthy environment in which people thrive. From a very basic viewpoint architecture is about managing knowledge of human needs and aspirations, technology and material resource in order to produce better human habitats.
Architecture is about managing resources wisely – human, social, cultural, material, natural and economic capital – in order to advance living conditions, opportunity and welfare. Space is a social, cultural, environmental and economic asset, as reflected in welfare studies, urban livability and even property prices, to name some of many dimensions, although the relations between these are not necessarily direct nor linear. Daylight has a special places among resources that architectural design deals with as it is linked to health, wellbeing, productivity and learning. Urban and building design has great influence on daylight availability and quality. Daylight may even be very precious and sparse, particularly in dense urban conditions or in climate zones with long winters or frequent dark skies, and the way light is treated in a design is one of the keys to its influence on occupants’ wellbeing. Architecture plays a pivotal role in improving daylight availability as part of the indoor environment, and in producing attractive urban environments that stimulates outdoors life, exercise and sunlight exposure.
The Danish Association of Architectural Firms asked its 600 member firms to nominate projects where their projects’ value creation was well documented. It turned out to be a bit of a challenge, since research on the topic was scattered and had to be found from very different research environments. Built projects were sorted and grouped according to the levels of evidence and documentation of their value creation. Many nominated cases were dismissed due to lack of documentation, which points out that architects and the construction sector in general needs to improve research on the effects of the built environment. But as cases and research were identified and collected, some interesting patterns and stories emerged. It turned out that architecture has much bigger impacts on social life, environment and economy than expected.
Sustainability requires value creation in many dimensions, – it is not enough to address the technical functionality alone. Successful architectural design needs to address societal aspects and projects should engage with a wider context in order to provide social and economic value beyond the client’s and users’ needs. The more than 60 cases gathered by the Association of Danish Architectural Firms demonstrate that a broad range of social, environmental and economic value creation can be documented, and that the effects can be surprisingly powerful. Daylight plays a strong role in the value creation of some of the best cases. Users often cite that integrating aesthetics, functionality, and durability is key to projects that are socially appreciated, and provide stimulating environments for their activities. There is however much to be done in order to understand value creation better and in greater detail, and much further research is needed, not least on how daylight is instrumental to design performance in real built environments. This is a challenge to architects, but also demonstrates a potential for better knowledge and improved design solutions. Research based design skills are a business opportunity for architects.
Peter Andreas Sattrup is a Danish architect MAA PhD and a senior advisor on sustainability to the Association of Danish Architectural Firms. He works to promote sustainability in the built environment by consulting on policy making, communication, competence building and innovation in business models for architecture, drawing on his previous experience as a practicing architect working in Denmark and Great Britain, and as an associate professor in design methods at the Technical University of Denmark. He is an experienced communicator, having given presentations at universities and conferences internationally and having co-curated the seminal exhibition ‘Green Architecture for the Future’ at the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art coinciding with the UN COP15 climate summit in Copenhagen. Architects wield great powers through their design skills and the choices they make in each project, but that is often little understood and even less appreciated, which is why Peter Andreas Sattrup is working on documenting and communicating how architectural design creates value based on Danish cases. The initial results demonstrate some surprisingly powerful effects that architectural design may have on social activities as well as environmental and economic performance, but there is plenty of research to be done in order to understand value creation by architectural design with greater precision and to develop tools and methods that can assist enhanced design performance.
DAYLIGHTING AND THE SENSES: TACTILE DESIGN PROCESSES FOSTERING BIOPHILIA
by Claude Demers
This presentation emphasises the physical and poetic relation between architecture and climate by introducing a combined tactile and numerical approach to creation. The presentation relates to recent research that explores the physical and poetic relation between structure and climate by introducing a combined tactile and numerical approach to creation (Demers 2016) whilst facing the necessity of low-energy buildings in relation to comfort and environmental satisfaction of users. It acknowledges the essential contribution of passive bioclimatic strategies in climate-responsive design, low-energy buildings and inhabitants’ well-being. As expressive means between humans and nature expand, landscape becomes more meaningful and greater becomes the possibility of cultural and poetical reinterpretation of natural elements (Norberg-Schulz, 1979). Landscapes generate emotions in relation to diverse interactions, such as calmness, intimacy, openness, which could be generalized to inhabitants (Bell, 1999). Architecture integrated to its environment and cultural context expands the space of the biological and social balance, and secures a favourable habitat for productivity, health and well-being while minimizing negative impacts on the environment (Beatly 2011). As a genuine extension of the body, architecture stands between nature and humans, and also expresses the tangible meeting point of climate and technology (Portoghesi, 2000). The concept of physical ambiences uniquely describes the importance of a combined quantitative and qualitative approach in the design process, linking performative goals of architecture with experiential and more sensorial intentions. The presentation proposes that a tactile approach puts forward the experimental and experiential nature of environmental fluxes at several levels of precision and simulation, from inception to final developments. The tactile creative process should therefore stimulate and expand the creative power of designers in relation to physical ambiances.
The presentation also explores the speculation on possible experiential projections of inhabitants’ adaptive opportunities in relation to building envelopes. Where environmental determinism led to uniformity, the acceptance of environmental diversity through user’s adaptability should lead to more diversified, flexible climate-responsive and ultimately sustainable architecture (Potvin et. al. 2004). Adaptive erosion results suggest that re-humanization of architecture through adaptive solutions involving the prediction of biophilia through physical ambiances could emphasize the importance of connecting inhabitant’s experience throughout the design activity (Demers and Potvin, 2016). This aspect should be further explored since the essential role of educators in relation to building professionals and developers in promoting an optimization of human interactions with buildings has been recognized (Demers, Potvin 2009, Cole 2009). Building energy intensity should address inhabitants behaviour in the equation, since they are directly responsible for the energy demand (Janda, 2009). This presentation proposes that the combined tactile and digital processes should become part of design methodologies to promote humanization of otherwise deterministic simulation results in architecture to foster biophilia and well-being.
Claude Demers is a Professor of architecture at Laval University, actively involved in teaching and research on daylighting through funded projects since 1997. She has completed a PhD in architecture at the University of Cambridge, innovating on the integration of qualitative and quantitative assessments of daylighting in architecture. Co-founder of the Groupe de Recherche en Ambiances Physiques, she is interested in biophilic architecture and occupant’s satisfaction, associating the importance of design to user’s behaviour. She is an expert in the digital and analogical modeling of light, developing and applying her research expertise to innovate on new building designs. She has produced fundamental and applied researches favouring the integration of bioclimatic design strategies at the scales of urban, architectural and detail for several projects that have won prizes for architectural innovation: OAQ, RAIC medal, Energia prize, CECObois, Bomex.
TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF CIRCADIAN LIVING: A CASE STUDY
by Dean Hawkes
This paper reports on the design, construction and inhabitation of a small house that was built in Cambridge, UK, twenty-five years ago and which anticipated many of the characteristics of what is now known as Circadian design.
The Key Principles for the design of a Circadian House, as defined by a VELUX study are:
Live in balance with nature – A house in balance with nature allows the occupants to live with and follow the daily and seasonal cycles of the outdoor environment.
Adaptability – A house whose space and occupants can adapt to changing conditions (daily and seasonally) and needs.
Sensibility – A house that provides protection against harmful substances,which humans cannot sense, and allows freedom to control parameters that can be sensed.
The house was completed in 1991 and received an RIBA Architecture Award in 1992. The priority in its design was to make a home for its owners, a teacher and an architect, who were then in their 50s. The intention was that they would live there for the remainder of their lives. Twenty-five years later they and the house have matured together.
Hawkes House, Plan The design is a free adaptation of the principles of Passive Solar Design in which most of the principal rooms have a southerly orientation. It occupies a small, secluded site in the suburbs some 3 kilometers to the southeast of the historic centre of Cambridge. The accommodation consists of a large living room, a kitchen, two bedrooms and two studies, plus bathrooms and storage space. The plan is arranged around an enclosed, southfacing garden that is an extension of the living space. In addition to its en-ergy saving qualities, the house provides a stimulating environment, responsive to diurnal and seasonal variation, that has sustained and enhanced the lives of its occupants as the years have passed.
The presentation will describe and illustrate the design of the house including images of its progressive modification over 25 years in response to its owners’ changing lifestyle and physical needs. The aim will be to show how clearly defined and well-established principles of design that give priority to the quality of the internal environment can meet the needs of 21st century life.
Dean Hawkes is emeritus professor of architectural design at the Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University and an emeritus fellow of Darwin College, University of Cambridge. His building, designed in partnership with Stephen Greenberg, has won four RIBA Architecture Awards. In 2010 he received the RIBA Annie Spink Award in recognition of his contribution to architectural education. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Letters by the University of Westminster in 2016.
LIGHT IN THE PUBLIC REALM
by James Carpenter
“Light in the Public Realm” will explore the work of James Carpenter Design Associates (JCDA). At the intersection of art, engineering and architecture, JCDA’s use of materials activates and transforms both private and public spaces with observable qualities of light that define a collective experience of place. Looking at their work in both civic and commercial contexts, James Carpenter will address the increased need for innovative strategies that heighten our collective awareness of light and nature.
James Carpenter leads James Carpenter Design Associates (JCDA), a cross-disciplinary design firm. The firm is recognized for its distinctive use of natural light, which serves as the foundation of its design philosophy. Considered a foremost authority on glass and daylighting, Carpenter has been recognized with numerous national and international awards, including an Academy Award in Architecture from the American Academy of Arts and Letters and a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship. He holds a degree from the Rhode Island School of Design and was a Loeb Fellow of Harvard University’s Graduate School of Design. James Carpenter has taught at the Rhode Island School of Design, Royal Danish Academy School of Design, University of Chicago, AHO, MIT and many other institutions in the United States and Europe.
DAYLIGHT CRAFT: RECLAIMING A CULTURE OF CAREFULLY CRAFTING ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR SUSTAINABLE DAYLIGHTING
by Werner Osterhaus
Over several decades of architectural design, daylighting design details in buildings seem to have lost much of their rich and expressive language and with it their visual delight. Windows and their surroundings have become less articulated in form, function and material use. While many older buildings use traditional craft methods to carefully express functional and aesthetic aspects of daylight openings and their interior or exterior surroundings through highly developed details (e.g. joints between different elements and materials or functions), contemporary buildings often lack an appreciation for a high level of craft and thus the visual delight of architectural quality. The traditional know-how about effective ways to design for daylight and control it seems to have all but disappeared. The daylighting design of many new buildings appears to be driven by the need to reduce construction time and labour cost. With our senses relying to about 80% on visual information, revitalising visual delight and focusing on unique architectural daylighting solutions for their respective context has the potential to add a bioregional flavour to our built environment.
The paper reviews historical and contemporary examples of fenestration design in their context and suggests a method to rediscover the joy of architectural playfulness and functional vernacular design language and meaning in the development of contemporary daylighting designs. The method addresses aspects of daylight, sunlight and ventilation in light of today’s desire for delightful sustainable and energy- efficient buildings with a bioregional and vernacular flavour which offer their users the necessary adaptability for future directions. It includes an assessment of architectural character, and of technical and technological performance requirements (e.g. visual properties, energy transfer, and maintenance requirements), and provides concepts for the effective integration of the many potentially conflicting design challenges.
Werner Osterhaus is an architect and Professor of Lighting Design Research at the Department of Engineering at Aarhus University in Denmark. His passion lies in applying design, technology and science to architectural (day)lighting to ensure well-being and pleasant experiences for building occupants and a sustainable built environment. Werner has been involved in daylighting research and design since he first started working with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Windows and Daylighting research group in 1987.
Since 1994, he has been a full-time academic in schools of architecture in the USA, New Zealand and Germany, and since 2009 in a school of engineering in Denmark. He focuses on
lighting design, sustainable architecture and building environmental science. Werner has lead and contributed to numerous national and international research projects, published many scientific articles, and regularly serves as reviewer for research funding agencies and international journals.
HAPPY PEOPLE IN HEALTHY ARCHITECTURE
by Lone Wiggers
With the development of both public and private buildings in the modern sustainable welfare state Denmark, the discussion of “value for money” becomes rooted in what are the driving goals for living and working in modern architecture.
We have an obligation to look at ideal long term effects for the users, when creating tomorrows buildings, for instance looking at what elements in architecture makes us learn more in our schools and keeps us more healthy in life. The intelligent buildings with this built-in sustainability for the users can physically and ultimately have an impact on people’s happiness.
The use of daylight and other green measures, as design drivers for modern architecture, is linked to the movement of “evidence-based design”, that implement modern research results on the wellbeing effects on humans, into the creation of space.
Lone Wiggers will give examples of how her office, C.F. Møller Architects, is working with evidence based designs in public buildings such as the Technical Faculty of the University of Odense, The Medical Faculty Building, “The Mærsk tower”, for the University of Copenhagen, as well as examples of integration of daylight and nature into the development of modern hospital design.
Lone Wiggers is an architect MAA and has been partner since 1997 in C.F. Møller, at present with a staff of approx. 325 employees divided between six departments in Aarhus, Aalborg, Copenhagen, Oslo, Stockholm and London.
Lone Wiggers has taken part in a large number of projects with a broadness ranging from housing, domiciles, schools, senior institutions, hospitals, museums to planning and design. The projects have been conducted as sketching, project supervisor and design responsible partner.
Furthermore, Lone Wiggers has participated in various professional associations as teacher, censor, speaker and chairman of among others the public art society’s architectural board and the Ministry of Culture’s canon. Lone believes in fundamental architectural values, such as: Man in the center, The spirit of Place (Genius Loci), Sustainability in all aspects, timelessness, sensibility in form, space, order and matter, as well as Culture, history and innovation combined.